1.A.2.g vii - Offroad Construction Vehicles

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under Sub-sector 1.A.2.g vii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction emissions from Off-Road Construction Vehicles and Construction Machinery are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction
1.A.2.g vii Offroad Construction Vehicles T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T)

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2014) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2014) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of 1.A.2.g vii to fuel-specific over-all delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil & Biodiesel 42% 46% 45% 44% 43% 43% 41% 40% 41% 40% 41% 40% 40% 42% 42% 41%
Gasoline & Bioethanol 32% 65% 68% 69% 69% 67% 67% 66% 66% 66% 68% 69% 69% 71% 72% 72%
Table 3: Annual fuel consumption in construction vehicles and moile machinery, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 47,379 44,532 42,591 33,020 34,228 33,418 34,506 36,265 35,245 37,862 37,123 37,803
Gasoline 1,490 4,887 5,106 4,873 4,919 4,941 4,979 3,079 3,037 2,842 861 877
Biodiesel 0 0 0 722 997 1,493 1,706 2,498 2,300 2,494 2,434 2,200
Bioethanol 0 0 0 33 71 67 95 88 117 116 38 38
TOTAL 48,869 49,419 47,697 38,649 40,214 39,919 41,286 41,930 40,699 43,313 40,455 40,918

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5]. (*: For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
Diesel 0.172 482 4182 0.373 2972 32.032 32.034 32.034 1.215 0.236 0.125 0.0025 1.166 39.576 1.636 0.236 23.286 6986 1,1646 8005 1845 2,8477 1.628 NE NE
Gasoline 0.092 8902 772 0.373 36.292 2.812 2.814 2.814 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.156 39.046 1.616 0.236 22.976 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 2.768 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv; Table 3-103 [4]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i; Table 3-1 [5]
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [6]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.2.g vii is key source for emissions of PM2.5 (L/T) and PM10 (L/T).

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Due to the fundamental revision of the applied approach, both activity data and emission factors changed widely. The following tables display the recalculated data.

Activity data: The following table provides the revised over-all activity data. Here, in contrast to earlier submissions, the source-specific consumption data has been calculated via annual shares from [3] instead of continual shares.

Table 4: Revision of activity data
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
diesel fuels
Submission 2015 47,379 44,532 42,591 33,742 35,225 34,911 36,212 38,763 37,545 40,355 39,557
Submission 2014 46,991 41,076 39,926 35,149 36,023 36,240 37,168 40,254 39,589 40,606 40,082
absolute change 388 3,457 2,665 -1,407 -798 -1,329 -956 -1,492 -2,044 -251 -525
relative change 0.83% 8.42% 6.68% -4.00% -2.22% -3.67% -2.57% -3.71% -5.16% -0.62% -1.31%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2015 1,490 4,887 5,106 4,907 4,989 5,008 5,074 3,167 3,154 2,958 899
Submission 2014 2,816 3,132 3,109 3,085 3,134 3,132 3,111 1,921 1,894 1,723 1,622
absolute change -1,326 1,754 1,997 1,822 1,855 1,876 1,963 1,246 1,260 1,235 -723
relative change -47.10% 56.01% 64.21% 59.07% 59.20% 59.91% 63.08% 64.85% 66.51% 71.64% -44.59%
over-all fuel consumption
Submission 2015 48,869 49,419 47,697 38,649 40,214 39,919 41,286 41,930 40,699 43,313 40,455
Submission 2014 49,807 44,208 43,035 38,233 39,157 39,372 40,279 42,176 41,483 42,330 41,704
absolute change -938 5,211 4,662 415 1,057 547 1,007 -246 -785 984 -1,249
relative change -1.88% 11.79% 10.83% 1.09% 2.70% 1.39% 2.50% -0.58% -1.89% 2.32% -2.99%

Emission Factors: Besides the revision of applied values, new EF have been implemented, replacing 'NE' notations (see tables below).

Table 5: Revised annual emission factors for diesel fuels, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NH3
Submission 2015 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
Submission 2014 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
absolute change -3.84 -3.84 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83 -3.83
relative change -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96% -96%
NOx
Submission 2015 1,041 1,012 970 757 708 659 610 563 521 483 449
Submission 2014 972 939 725 679 635 591 548 508 472 441
absolute change 1,041 40 31 32 29 24 18 15 13 11 8
relative change 4% 3% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2%
NMVOC
Submission 2015 184 157 134 90 83 76 69 64 59 55 52
Submission 2014 168 147 96 85 77 71 65 61 57 54
absolute change 184 -12 -13 -6 -3 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -3
relative change -7% -9% -6% -3% -2% -2% -3% -3% -4% -5%
SO2
Submission 2015 79 61 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Submission 2014 61 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
absolute change 79 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
CO
Submission 2015 581 579 553 422 398 376 356 339 325 314 306
Submission 2014 650 597 435 405 385 374 371 373 379 386
absolute change 581 -71 -44 -13 -7 -8 -18 -32 -48 -64 -80
relative change -11% -7% -3% -2% -2% -5% -9% -13% -17% -21%
PM
Submission 2015 148 121 95 61 55 50 46 42 39 36 34
Submission 2014 134 111 72 65 58 54 50 48 47 45
absolute change 148 -12 -16 -12 -9 -8 -8 -8 -9 -10 -10
relative change -9% -15% -16% -15% -14% -15% -17% -19% -22% -23%
Table 6: Revised annual emission factors for gasoline fuels, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NH3
Submission 2015 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
Submission 2014 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
absolute change -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91 -3.91
relative change -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98% -98%
NOx
Submission 2015 54 68 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77
Submission 2014 65 71 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73
absolute change 54 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
relative change 6% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%
NMVOC
Submission 2015 985 927 883 893 888 894 892 895 897 889 889
Submission 2014 806 759 747 747 746 746 746 746 746 746
absolute change 985 121 125 146 142 148 146 148 151 142 143
relative change 15% 16% 20% 19% 20% 20% 20% 20% 19% 19%
SO2
Submission 2015 10 8.27 3.22 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Submission 2014 8.30 1.61 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
absolute change 10 -0.03 1.61 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19
relative change 0% 100% 104% 104% 103% 102% 104% 100% 104% 104%
CO
Submission 2015 38,459 35,290 32,423 32,108 32,488 32,973 33,520 34,097 34,681 35,250 35,791
Submission 2014 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010
absolute change 38,459 31,280 28,413 28,098 28,478 28,963 29,510 30,087 30,671 31,240 31,781
relative change 780% 709% 701% 710% 722% 736% 750% 765% 779% 793%

.
In addition, as proposed in submission 2014, EF for PM emissions from gasoline combustion have been adopted from [3].

Table: Newly implemented emission factors for PM emissions from gasoline fuels, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
3.59 3.17 2.86 2.82 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81

Furthermore, several tier1 default EF from [4] and [5] have been applied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations:

Table: Newly implemented tier1 emission factors
diesel fuels gasoline fuels
Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ]
1.21 0.12 0.002 1,164 801 184 0.76 0.20 0.007 919 801 204

Due to the newly implemented tier1 EFs for B[b]F, B[k]F and I[1,2,3-c,d]P, the summatory EFs applied for PAH 1-4 were revised accordingly:

Table: Revised summatory EFs for PAH 1-4, in [mg/TJ]
diesel fuels gasoline fuels
Submission 2015 2,847 2,131
Submission 2014 930 930
absolute change 1,917 1,201
relative change 206% 129%

Emissions: Given the broad revisions and further changes described for AD and EF above, all emissions data has been recalculated but cannot be displayed here in full detail.

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to diesel and biodiesel.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2014.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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