1.A.3.b v - Gasoline Evaporation

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In category 1.A.3.b v - Road Transport: Gasoline evaporation fugitive emissions from evaporation of gasoline from road vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b v Gasoline evaporation T2 NS, M CS, M NMVOC (L/T)

Method

Activity data

Specific data for gasoline evaporation from road vehicles are generated within TREMOD [2].
- The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline evaported from road vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual amount of gasoline evaporated from road vehicles, in [kt]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
PCs 10,923 9,694 9,171 9,577 9,398 8,690 8,603 8,108 7,638 7,332 7,102 7,067 6,957 6,894 6,585 6,640
LDVs 169 139 144 138 134 119 108 103 95 88 74 68 62 59 55 51
Mopeds 113 79 72 70 65 67 73 73 77 77 79 81 78 81 79 81
Motorcycles 78 39 93 101 125 118 126 135 141 83 92 99 106 111 110 112
TOTAL 11,283 9,951 9,480 9,886 9,722 8,995 8,909 8,419 7,952 7,580 7,348 7,315 7,204 7,144 6,828 6,884

Emission factors

Tier3 emission factors representing the effect of mitigation technologies are derived from the TREMOD model from (ifeu, 2014a) used troughout NFR sector 1.A.3. [1]

Table 2: Overview of emission factors used for 2013 emissions estimates, in [kg/t]
Passenger cars Light duty vehicles Mopeds Motorcycles
concentional with mitigation concentional with mitigation concentional concentional with mitigation
23.28 0.41 16.85 0.26 3.39 12.97 11.33

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b v - Gasoline evaporation is key category for emissions of NMVOC regarding the emissions' level and declining trend.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds - NMVOC

(fugitive emissions only; no NMVOC emissions from fuel combustion included)

Since its maximum level of over 11 kilotonnes in 1990, the amount of evaporated gasoline is decreasing - and so are the related NMVOC emissions. The amounts of evaporated gasoline are connected directly with those of gasoline consumed. Here, the decrease becomes sharper from 2000 onwards following a growing switch from gasoline to diesel oil especially in passenger cars. Here, the annual amounts of NMVOC emissions from evaporation not only depend directly on the amount of evaporated gasoline but also on the number of vehicles equipped with mitigation technologies. Thus, the decrease is sharpest straight after 1990 and since then slowing down.

NOTE: Due to defectively revised TREMOD data (both AD and EF), the emission estimates provided in the NFR tables are incorrect for 1992 to 1994. Here, the EFs for 1992 to 1994 have not been adapted to the revised values for all years as of 1995. In addition, a separate error occurred with the 1994 activity data resulting in an extreme dip in the time series. The chart for activity data provided above therefore includes an artificial correction for 1994. In contrast, it is not possible to provide a corresponding artificially corretected chart for the emission estimates. Here, last year's chart for 1990 to 2012 is included again to at least display the correct trend in emissions. - However, the described errors will be corrected with this year's TREMOD routine revision and the NEC and CLRTAP submissions 2016.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software.
Here, activity data was revised for all years from 2006 depending on the vehicle type.

Table 3: Revised annual amounts of evaporated gasoline, in [kt]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
TOTAL
Submission 2015 11,283 9,951 9,480 9,886 9,722 8,995 8,909 8,419 7,952 7,580 7,348 7,315 7,204 7,144 6,828
Submission 2014 11,283 9,894 9,421 9,829 9,665 8,938 8,853 8,366 7,989 7,606 7,372 7,333 7,213 7,413 6,836
absolute change 0 57 59 57 57 57 56 54 -37 -26 -25 -17 -10 -269 -8
relative change 0.00% 0.57% 0.63% 0.58% 0.59% 0.64% 0.64% 0.64% -0.47% -0.34% -0.33% -0.24% -0.13% -3.63% -0.12%
Passenger Cars
Submission 2015 10,923 9,694 9,171 9,577 9,398 8,690 8,603 8,108 7,638 7,332 7,102 7,067 6,957 6,894 6,585
Submission 2014 10,923 9,638 9,113 9,522 9,344 8,636 8,549 8,058 7,684 7,366 7,134 7,091 6,972 7,165 6,592
absolute change 0 56 58 55 55 55 54 51 -46 -34 -32 -24 -15 -271 -7
relative change 0.00% 0.58% 0.63% 0.58% 0.59% 0.63% 0.63% 0.63% -0.60% -0.46% -0.45% -0.34% -0.21% -3.78% -0.11%
Light Duty Vehicles
Submission 2015 169 139 144 138 134 119 108 103 95 88 74 68 62 59 55
Submission 2014 169 138 143 136 132 118 107 101 92 85 72 65 60 57 53
absolute change 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
relative change 0.00% 0.59% 1.03% 1.09% 1.18% 1.31% 1.42% 1.52% 3.45% 3.98% 3.95% 3.90% 3.68% 2.82% 3.11%
Mopeds
Submission 2015 113 79 72 70 65 67 73 73 77 77 79 81 78 81 79
Submission 2014 113 79 72 70 65 67 72 73 75 75 77 79 76 79 79
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0
relative change 0.00% -0.29% 0.25% 0.34% 0.45% 0.54% 0.65% 0.77% 2.58% 3.03% 2.88% 2.75% 2.53% 2.29% 0.33%
Motorcycles
Submission 2015 78 39 93 101 125 118 126 135 141 83 92 99 106 111 110
Submission 2014 78 39 93 101 124 117 125 134 137 81 89 98 105 113 113
absolute change 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 2 3 2 1 -2 -3
relative change 0.01% -0.28% 0.24% 0.34% 0.44% 0.55% 0.65% 0.76% 2.58% 3.03% 2.89% 1.99% 1.14% -1.56% -2.70%

In addition, tier3 NMVOC emission factors were revised for recent years.

As a result of the changes in activity data and emission factors, NMVOC emissions from gasoline evaporation have been re-estimated.

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [2]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

As mentioned above, the routine revision of the TREMOD model will include the correction of erroneous activity data and emission factors for this sub-category.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2014a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
2. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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