1.A.3.b vi - Road Transport: Automobile Tyre and Brake Wear

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b vi - Road transport: Automobile tyre and brake wear emissions from automobile tyre and brake wear in RT are reported. Therefore, these sub-category is an important source for a) particle emissions and b) emissions of heavy metals, POPs etc. included in these particles.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b vi Automobile tyre and brake wear T1, T3 NS, M CS PM2.5 (L), PM10 (L/T), TSP (L), Pb (L)

Method

Activity Data

For detailed mileage data, please see superordinate chapter.

Emission factors

The tier1 emission factors used here have been derived within a literature study in 2006. During this study, average amounts of particulate wear per km and average contents especially of heavy metals in tyres and brakes were derived. - Based on this tier1 input data, emissions are estimated as follows:

(1)
\begin{gather} EM(PM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] = ØEM(PM)_\text{ per km, type of vehicle} [kg/km] \cdot Mileage_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [km] \end{gather}
(2)
\begin{gather} EM(HM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] = EM(PM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] \cdot ØContent(HM)_\text{ type of vehicle, brake system} [kg/kg] \end{gather}

EF used for emission estimates 1990(1995)-2013

Table 1: Overview of tier1 EF used for emissions from tyre and brake wear
Material Tyre Wear Brake Wear
Vehicle type PCs LDVs HDVs Buses 2Ws PCs LDVs HDVs Buses 2Ws
Particulate Matter [mg/km]
PM2.5 4.49 7.10 18.90 18.90 1.93 2.93 4.56 12.74 12.74 1.44
PM10 6.40 10.10 27.00 24.30 2.80 7.35 11.47 32.00 28.80 3.63
TSP 10.70 16.90 45.00 45.00 4.60 7.50 11.70 32.65 32.65 3.70
Heavy Metals [µg/km]
Priority HM
Pb 1.31 2.18 8.70 7.25 0.56 120.00 249.00 12.00 12.00 51.21
Hg 0.002 0.003 0.012 0.010 0.001 0.00 0.00 1.68 1.68 0.00
Cd 0.18 0.30 1.20 1.00 0.08 0.15 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.07
Other HM
As 0.14 0.24 0.96 0.80 0.06 0.13 0.26 2.81 2.81 0.05
Cr 0.16 0.27 1.08 0.90 0.07 1.82 3.77 361.80 361.80 0.80
Cu 0.25 0.42 1.68 1.40 0.11 1,588 3,289 15,477 15,477 4,065
Ni 0.16 0.27 1.08 0.90 0.07 3.36 6.96 22.45 22.45 1.43
Se 1.80 3.00 12.00 10.00 0.80 0.28 0.58 1.34 1.34 0.12
Zn 1,035.00 1,725 11,700 9,750 443 512 1,061 620 620 218
POPs [µg/km]
PCDD/F NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
PAH
B[a]P 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.12 0.01 NA NA NA NA NA
B[b]F 0.04 0.06 0.16 0.14 0.02 NA NA NA NA NA
B[k]F IE IE IE IE IE NA NA NA NA NA
I[..]P 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.07 0.01 NA NA NA NA NA
∑ PAHs 1-4 0.09 0.14 0.38 0.34 0.04 NA NA NA NA NA

Discussion of emission trends

(emissions from wear/abrasion only; no fuel combustion included)

NFR 1.A.3.b vi - Emissions from Tyre and Brake Wear is key source for emissions of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and Lead (Pb).

All reported emissons from tyre and brake wear are connected directly to the mileage driven by the road vehicles covered.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5, PM10 & TSP

Selected heavy metals - Chromium, Nickel and Zinc

The emissions of heavy metals are as well linked directly to the trend of mileage.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a regular the revision of the mileage data modelled in TREMOD. (see superordinate chapter for recalculated mileage data).

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


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