1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D NOx (L), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T)

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel oil 22,864 54,127 78,326 82,191 86,305 86,301 88,135 88,164 86,974 87,828 89,228 89,222 87,980 90,106 88,311 91,109
Gasoline 23,875 14,538 13,392 12,148 11,574 10,501 9,685 9,052 8,242 7,631 6,503 5,996 5,503 5,253 4,854 4,621
LPG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 239 379 414 558 505 543 557 587
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 407 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,349 1,363 1,306
Biodiesel 0 84 868 1,254 1,597 2,397 3,079 5,871 10,463 11,713 8,852 7,152 6,695 6,232 6,183 5,359
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 62 119 103 124 171 213 215 215 198
TOTAL 46,739 68,749 92,586 95,593 99,476 99,199 100,909 103,555 106,615 108,483 106,163 104,338 102,209 103,698 101,483 103,181

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: fuel-specific IEF for light-duty vehicles, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel fuels1
NH3 330.46 337.07 249.18 228.39 206.58 184.98 165.05 148.73 134.63 118.68 97.86 86.30 77.47 69.06 61.99 55.80
NMVOC 74.60 72.27 50.32 46.16 41.50 36.79 32.40 28.41 25.11 21.97 17.92 15.75 14.07 12.44 11.03 9.76
NOx 610.26 527.82 477.40 467.17 456.75 450.28 445.22 438.25 428.18 412.48 393.61 383.88 375.54 369.24 361.63 356.73
SO2 80.85 60.52 13.97 11.64 1.86 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 330.46 337.07 249.18 228.39 206.58 184.98 165.05 148.73 134.63 118.68 97.86 86.30 77.47 69.06 61.99 55.80
PM2.5 105.12 93.54 60.90 56.18 50.27 43.84 40.34 37.30 34.81 32.25 28.93 27.33 25.86 23.99 21.51 18.53
PM10 105.12 93.54 60.90 56.18 50.27 43.84 40.34 37.30 34.81 32.25 28.93 27.33 25.86 23.99 21.51 18.53
TSP 105.12 93.54 60.90 56.18 50.27 43.84 40.34 37.30 34.81 32.25 28.93 27.33 25.86 23.99 21.51 18.53
Gasoline fuels1
NH3 0.64 2.43 19.55 21.36 22.17 22.66 22.84 21.94 21.16 21.10 22.23 21.46 20.55 19.45 18.28 17.32
NMVOC 1,112.24 599.31 388.23 373.89 358.04 340.79 321.43 295.03 289.15 269.07 230.04 208.09 190.59 176.01 164.57 158.30
NOx 665.19 584.50 437.68 424.86 407.11 389.40 367.43 338.43 333.83 307.60 258.83 228.85 203.62 182.22 164.35 154.04
SO2 12.85 8.36 3.25 2.55 1.16 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 7,981.70 7,242.15 5,708.84 5,580.90 5,384.14 5,199.52 4,976.44 4,635.73 4,547.35 4,248.48 3,710.11 3,383.51 3,093.49 2,857.57 2,648.90 2,537.78
PM2.5 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.46 4.38 4.36 4.31 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.10 2.89 2.77
PM10 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.46 4.38 4.36 4.31 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.10 2.89 2.77
TSP 7.67 4.92 4.49 4.46 4.38 4.36 4.31 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.10 2.89 2.77

1 Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b ii is key category for NOx, PM2.5 and PM10.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2012. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised consumption data
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Diesel oil
Submission 2015 22,864 54,127 78,326 82,191 86,305 86,301 88,135 88,164 86,974 87,828 89,228 89,222 87,980 90,106 88,311
Submission 2014 22,864 54,117 77,909 81,682 85,682 85,597 87,332 87,273 84,531 84,954 86,402 86,492 85,464 86,223 84,834
absolute change 0 11 417 510 622 704 803 891 2,442 2,874 2,826 2,729 2,516 3,882 3,477
relative change 0.00% 0.02% 0.53% 0.62% 0.73% 0.82% 0.92% 1.02% 2.89% 3.38% 3.27% 3.16% 2.94% 4.50% 4.10%
Biodiesel
Submission 2015 0 84 868 1,254 1,597 2,397 3,079 5,871 10,463 11,713 8,852 7,152 6,695 6,232 6,183
Submission 2014 0 84 863 1,246 1,585 2,377 3,051 5,811 10,169 11,330 8,572 6,933 6,504 5,964 5,940
absolute change 0 0 5 8 12 20 28 59 294 383 280 219 191 269 243
relative change 0.02% 0.53% 0.62% 0.73% 0.82% 0.92% 1.02% 2.89% 3.38% 3.27% 3.16% 2.94% 4.50% 4.09%
Gasoline
Submission 2015 23,875 14,538 13,392 12,148 11,574 10,501 9,685 9,052 8,242 7,631 6,503 5,996 5,503 5,253 4,854
Submission 2014 23,875 14,526 13,311 12,063 11,481 10,406 9,586 8,951 8,001 7,372 6,287 5,803 5,336 5,024 4,663
absolute change 0 11 81 85 94 96 98 101 241 259 215 193 167 229 191
relative change 0.00% 0.08% 0.61% 0.71% 0.82% 0.92% 1.03% 1.13% 3.01% 3.52% 3.42% 3.32% 3.12% 4.57% 4.10%
Bioethanol
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 62 119 103 124 171 213 215 215
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 61 115 100 120 166 206 206 207
absolute change 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 5 6 9 8
relative change 1.06% 1.13% 3.00% 3.53% 3.42% 3.32% 3.12% 4.57% 4.10%
LPG
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 239 379 414 558 505 543 557
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 193 303 337 459 415 437 470
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 76 77 99 90 106 87
relative change 24.15% 24.89% 22.78% 21.52% 21.71% 24.13% 18.59%
CNG
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 407 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,349 1,363
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 316 450 663 858 1,027 1,090 1,107 1,142
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 91 129 166 184 212 224 242 221
relative change 28.65% 28.65% 25.11% 21.44% 20.65% 20.57% 21.82% 19.32%

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2014a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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