1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses emissions from fuel combustion in trucks, lorries, buses etc. are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, M, D NOx (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T)

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Trucks & Lorries
Diesel oil 412,472 573,298 675,947 520,828 526,811 507,453 512,834 499,024 541,809 544,353 566,808 586,223
Biodiesel 0 894 7,488 34,681 63,373 67,678 50,879 40,002 41,230 37,651 39,687 34,481
Trucks - TOTAL 412,472 574,193 683,436 555,509 590,183 575,131 563,713 539,027 583,039 582,005 606,495 620,704
Buses
Diesel oil 62,591 62,821 63,016 46,027 44,084 40,168 40,219 42,581 43,440 41,148 44,764 46,077
Biodiesel 0 98 698 3,065 5,303 5,357 3,990 3,413 3,306 2,846 3,134 2,710
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,201 1,170 1,239
Buses - TOTAL 62,591 63,529 64,128 49,874 50,498 46,773 45,469 47,332 48,049 45,195 49,069 50,026
Trucks & Lorries + Buses
Diesel oil 475,063 636,119 738,963 566,855 570,894 547,621 553,052 541,605 585,249 585,502 611,572 632,300
Biodiesel 0 992 8,187 37,746 68,676 73,035 54,869 43,416 44,536 40,497 42,821 37,191
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,201 1,170 1,239
1.A.3.b iii TOTAL 475,063 637,721 747,564 605,383 640,681 621,905 609,182 586,359 631,089 627,200 655,564 670,729
LKW.PNG
bus.PNG

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: average IEF for all fuels used by heavy duty vehicles and buses in Germany, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
NH3 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.34 0.33
NMVOC 69.50 59.86 43.66 41.46 39.55 37.61 35.98 34.81 33.51 29.48 22.80 19.02 15.95 13.17 11.23 9.67
NOx 952.79 922.87 861.20 845.27 814.62 776.22 747.66 728.13 718.59 659.95 556.11 495.03 446.90 402.05 371.99 345.55
SO2 112.24 60.64 14.13 11.82 1.90 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
CO 207.08 178.22 143.84 140.65 138.37 136.39 135.21 137.99 141.41 139.79 132.19 129.48 127.09 124.09 122.72 120.14
PM 39.92 32.35 20.99 19.78 18.42 17.44 16.79 16.28 15.92 14.29 11.43 9.79 8.52 7.37 6.57 5.92

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 3: tier1 EF derived from EMEP/EEA Guidebook 2013 default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
diesel fuels 1.213 0.2025 0.1234 0.0023 0.6983 0.4935 0.2048 0.0023 40.46 118.72 716.95 800.74 183.89 1,820.30
CNG NE 0.2896 NE NE 0.2541 1.0191 0.2923 NE 58.20 NE NE NE NE NE
LPG NE 0.2304 NE NE 0.2022 0.8109 0.2326 NE 46.30 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04
all fuels buses: 0.000019
all fuels trucks: 0.000015

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iii is key category for NOx, PM2.5 and PM10.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2012. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Trucks: Diesel oil
Submission 2015 412,472 573,298 675,947 629,600 608,122 580,649 556,591 520,828 526,811 507,453 512,834 499,024 541,809 544,353 566,808
Submission 2014 412,472 573,257 677,678 631,835 610,952 583,902 560,714 525,480 540,200 522,224 529,284 516,901 561,251 567,561 591,559
absolute change 0 41 -1,730 -2,235 -2,829 -3,253 -4,124 -4,652 -13,390 -14,771 -16,450 -17,877 -19,442 -23,208 -24,751
relative change 0.00% 0.01% -0.26% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.74% -0.89% -2.48% -2.83% -3.11% -3.46% -3.46% -4.09% -4.18%
Trucks: Biodiesel
Submission 2015 0 894 7,488 9,604 11,251 16,126 19,442 34,681 63,373 67,678 50,879 40,002 41,230 37,651 39,687
Submission 2014 0 894 7,508 9,638 11,304 16,216 19,586 34,991 64,984 69,648 52,511 41,435 42,709 39,257 41,423
absolute change 0 0 -19 -34 -52 -90 -144 -310 -1,611 -1,970 -1,632 -1,433 -1,479 -1,605 -1,736
relative change 0.01% -0.26% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.74% -0.89% -2.48% -2.83% -3.11% -3.46% -3.46% -4.09% -4.19%
Buses: Diesel oil
Submission 2015 62,591 62,821 63,016 58,249 54,630 50,367 48,094 46,027 44,084 40,168 40,219 42,581 43,440 41,148 44,764
Submission 2014 62,591 62,816 63,177 58,456 54,884 50,649 48,450 46,439 45,180 41,315 41,489 44,083 44,927 42,556 45,935
absolute change 0 5 -161 -207 -254 -282 -356 -411 -1,097 -1,148 -1,271 -1,502 -1,487 -1,407 -1,171
relative change 0.00% 0.01% -0.26% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.74% -0.89% -2.43% -2.78% -3.06% -3.41% -3.31% -3.31% -2.55%
Buses: Biodiesel
Submission 2015 0 98 698 889 1,011 1,399 1,680 3,065 5,303 5,357 3,990 3,413 3,306 2,846 3,134
Submission 2014 0 98 700 892 1,015 1,407 1,692 3,092 5,435 5,510 4,116 3,534 3,419 2,943 3,217
absolute change 0 0 -2 -3 -5 -8 -12 -27 -132 -153 -126 -120 -113 -97 -82
relative change 0.00% -0.25% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.73% -0.89% -2.43% -2.78% -3.06% -3.41% -3.31% -3.31% -2.56%
Buses: CNG
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,201 1,170
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 904 1,286 1,454 1,507 1,618 1,593 1,486 1,489
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -123 -175 -206 -247 -280 -289 -285 -318
relative change -13.58% -13.58% -14.16% -16.36% -17.28% -18.13% -19.19% -21.37%
1.A.3.b iii - Diesel oil
Submission 2015 475,063 636,119 738,963 687,850 662,752 631,015 604,685 566,855 570,894 547,621 553,052 541,605 585,249 585,502 611,572
Submission 2014 475,063 636,073 740,855 690,292 665,835 634,551 609,164 571,918 585,381 563,539 570,773 560,984 606,178 610,117 637,494
absolute change 0 46 -1,892 -2,442 -3,083 -3,536 -4,480 -5,063 -14,487 -15,918 -17,720 -19,379 -20,929 -24,615 -25,922
relative change 0.00% 0.01% -0.26% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.74% -0.89% -2.47% -2.82% -3.10% -3.45% -3.45% -4.03% -4.07%
1.A.3.b iii - Biodiesel
Submission 2015 0 992 8,187 10,492 12,262 17,525 21,122 37,746 68,676 73,035 54,869 43,416 44,536 40,497 42,821
Submission 2014 0 992 8,207 10,530 12,319 17,623 21,279 38,083 70,419 75,158 56,627 44,969 46,128 42,200 44,640
absolute change 0 0 -21 -37 -57 -98 -156 -337 -1,743 -2,123 -1,758 -1,553 -1,593 -1,703 -1,818
relative change 0.01% -0.26% -0.35% -0.46% -0.56% -0.74% -0.89% -2.47% -2.82% -3.10% -3.45% -3.45% -4.03% -4.07%
1.A.3.b iii - CNG
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,201 1,170
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 904 1,286 1,454 1,507 1,618 1,593 1,486 1,489
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -123 -175 -206 -247 -280 -289 -285 -318
relative change -13.58% -13.58% -14.16% -16.36% -17.28% -18.13% -19.19% -21.37%

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2014a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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