1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in motorised two-wheelers are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D CO (L)

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for mopeds and motorcycles is generated within the TREMOD model (ifeu, 2014a) [1].
The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline fuels consumed by motorized two-wheelers in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Two-Wheelers: Mopeds
Gasoline 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,051 2,821 2,921 3,157 3,162 3,319 3,302 3,388 3,433 3,262 3,379 3,293 3,375
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 22 48 45 65 98 126 139 146 145
Mopeds TOTAL 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,051 2,821 2,921 3,160 3,183 3,367 3,347 3,453 3,531 3,388 3,517 3,439 3,520
Two-Wheelers: Motorcycles
Gasoline 17,110 13,195 16,042 16,270 17,185 16,691 17,041 16,990 16,979 13,843 14,080 14,200 14,096 14,583 14,228 14,596
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 117 245 187 269 406 545 598 631 626
Motorcycles TOTAL 17,110 13,195 16,042 16,270 17,185 16,691 17,060 17,107 17,224 14,030 14,350 14,606 14,641 15,181 14,858 15,222
Two-Wheelers: Mopeds & Motorcycles
Gasoline 22,049 16,628 19,184 19,321 20,006 19,612 20,198 20,151 20,298 17,145 17,469 17,633 17,359 17,962 17,521 17,972
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 138 293 232 334 504 671 736 776 770
1.A.3.b iv TOTAL 22,049 16,628 19,184 19,321 20,006 19,612 20,220 20,290 20,591 17,376 17,803 18,136 18,029 18,698 18,297 18,742

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within TREMOD [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: fuel-specific IEF for mopeds and motorcycles, in [kg/TJ]

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iv is key category for CO.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particle emissions result from the comusbtion of gasoline and bioethanol. Here, due to the assumption that nearly all TSP emitted is formed by particles in the PM2.5 range, similar estimates are provided for all three fractions. (Exception: Until 1997, additional TSP emissions from use of leaded gasoline are included.)

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2012. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data
1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Mopeds: Gasoline
Submission 2015 4,940 3,433 3,315 3,174 3,370 3,373 3,142 3,051 2,821 2,921 3,157 3,162 3,319 3,302 3,388 3,433 3,262 3,379 3,293
Submission 2014 4,940 3,443 3,324 3,182 3,373 3,370 3,134 3,041 2,809 2,905 3,136 3,138 3,235 3,205 3,293 3,341 3,181 3,303 3,282
absolute change 0 -10 -9 -8 -3 3 8 10 12 16 20 24 83 97 95 92 81 76 11
relative change 0.00% -0.28% -0.28% -0.24% -0.10% 0.08% 0.25% 0.34% 0.44% 0.55% 0.65% 0.76% 2.58% 3.04% 2.88% 2.75% 2.54% 2.29% 0.34%
Mopeds: Bioethanol
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 22 48 45 65 98 126 139 146
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 22 47 43 63 95 123 135 145
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 3 3 0
relative change 0.90% 0.79% 2.57% 3.03% 2.87% 2.76% 2.54% 2.29% 0.34%
Motorcycles: Gasoline
Submission 2015 17,110 13,195 14,096 14,870 15,038 15,680 16,042 16,270 17,185 16,691 17,041 16,990 16,979 13,843 14,080 14,200 14,096 14,583 14,228
Submission 2014 17,110 13,233 14,136 14,905 15,052 15,668 16,003 16,215 17,109 16,600 16,931 16,861 16,552 13,434 13,686 13,856 13,818 14,286 14,213
absolute change 0 -37 -40 -35 -15 12 39 55 76 91 110 129 427 408 394 344 278 297 14
relative change 0.00% -0.28% -0.28% -0.24% -0.10% 0.08% 0.25% 0.34% 0.44% 0.55% 0.65% 0.76% 2.58% 3.04% 2.88% 2.48% 2.01% 2.08% 0.10%
Motorcycles: Bioethanol
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 117 245 187 269 406 545 598 631
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 116 239 181 262 396 534 586 630
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 6 8 10 11 12 1
relative change 0.61% 0.77% 2.58% 3.05% 2.88% 2.48% 2.01% 2.08% 0.10%
1.A.3.b iv - Gasoline
Submission 2015 22,049 16,628 17,411 18,044 18,408 19,053 19,184 19,321 20,006 19,612 20,198 20,151 20,298 17,145 17,469 17,633 17,359 17,962 17,521
Submission 2014 22,049 16,675 17,460 18,087 18,426 19,038 19,137 19,256 19,918 19,506 20,068 19,999 19,787 16,639 16,979 17,197 17,000 17,590 17,495
absolute change 0 -47 -49 -43 -18 15 47 65 89 107 130 153 510 506 489 435 359 373 25
relative change 0.00% -0.28% -0.28% -0.24% -0.10% 0.08% 0.25% 0.34% 0.44% 0.55% 0.65% 0.76% 2.58% 3.04% 2.88% 2.53% 2.11% 2.12% 0.15%
1.A.3.b iii - Bioethanol
Submission 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 138 293 232 334 504 671 736 776
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 137 285 225 325 491 657 721 775
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 7 9 12 14 15 1
relative change 0.65% 0.77% 2.58% 3.04% 2.88% 2.53% 2.11% 2.12% 0.15%

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2014a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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