1.A.3.d i - International Maritime Navigation

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d i - International Navigation the emissions from international navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.d i International Navigation T1 - T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in national totals

The source category includes international deep sea fishery and international marine transport. Emissions from fuel consumption for international transports of ocean-going ships are not reported as part of total national inventories.

Method

Activity data

Primary fuel delivery data (primary activity data, PAD) for international maritime navigation is included in line 6 - 'International Deep-Sea Bunkers' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2014) [1] together with respective data for IMO-registered ships used in national maritime transport (see 1.A.3.d ii (a)), fishing (see 1.A.4.c iii) and military navigation (see 1.A.5.b iii).

The AD applied for international maritime navigation therefore represents the remains of primary fuel delivery data from NEB line 6 minus the modelled consumption data estimated for non-IMO ships in 1.A.3.d ii (a), 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii:

(1)
\begin{align} AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d i} = PAD_\text{ NEB line 6} - AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.4.c iii - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.5.b iii - IMO} \end{align}
Table 1: Annual fuel consumption in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 12,748 12,919 13,664 11,664 12,274 13,104 11,513 11,993 15,817 17,524 13,105 14,412 16,662 15,370 12,594 12,344
Heavy Fuel Oil 68,484 56,323 60,984 63,597 68,826 77,782 83,935 78,182 78,257 96,625 96,017 85,865 86,934 86,687 81,171 71,321
TOTAL 81,232 69,242 74,648 75,260 81,100 90,886 95,448 90,175 94,074 114,149 109,122 100,277 103,596 102,057 93,765 83,665

Consumption of heavy oil has been increasing since 1984 as a result of high petroleum prices, global increases in transports and increasing maritime use of diesel engines that can run on heavy oil. The emissions fluctuations that occurred in the navigation sector in 1992 and 1996 were caused by trade and oil crises.

Emission factors

For main pollutants and particulate matter, modelled emission factors are available from [2]. - Here, for SO2 and PM, annual values are available representing the impact of fuel sulphur legislation.

For most other pollutants, tier1 default values from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a) [3] are applied. - Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways [4] and heavy duty road vehicles [5] have been applied as a gap-filling proxy.

Regarding PCDD/F, a country-specific value for diesel oil from (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] has been applied to heavy fuel oil, too.

Table 2: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[123cd]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ mg/TJ
Diesel oil 0.321 72.61 1,0551 51.81 1731 70.31 70.33 70.33 3.036 0.235 0.705 0.935 1.165 20.55 235 2.335 27.95 6986 1,1646 8017 1847 2,8478 939 1.865 0.895
Heavy Fuel Oil 0.331 1581 1,2941 4951 1921 2601 2603 2603 4.464 0.504 0.504 16.94 17.84 31.04 7934 5.204 29.74 7416 1,2356 8947 1957 3,0208 939 3.454 14.14

1 annual country-specific values from [2]
2 country-specific tier1 values from [2]
3 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
4 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2, [3]
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1, [3]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1, [4]
7 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel [5]
8 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
9 tier1 values derived from [5]

Trends of exhaust emissions from international navigation

NFR 1.A.3.d i is not considered in the key category analysis.

Emission trends for unregulated pollutants (such as NH3, NOx, NMVOC and CO, all HM and POPs) with only slight changes in the annual over-all IEFs applied, follow the trends in fuel consumption and the shares of diesel and heavy fuel oil:

On the other hand, the emission trends for SOx and PM, both depending on the fuel's sulphur content, follow not only the trends in fuel consumption but do also reflect fuel-sulphur legislation:

Recalculations

As both activity data and emission factors have been revised significantly, all emissions data reported here has been recalculated compared to submission 2014.

Acitivity data: Until submission 2014, all fuel deliveries provided in NEB line 6 were allocated to international maritime navigation, accepting an underestimation of the national total emissions.
Due to new information on the composition of the data provided in NEB line 6 and due to the revision of the entire navigation sector, specific shares of these over-all data can be allocated to IMO-registered ships in national maritime transport, fishing and military navigation. Therefore, the specific AD applied to here has been revised downward significantly.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Diesel oil
Submission 2015 12,748 12,919 13,664 11,993 15,817 17,524 13,105 14,412 16,662 15,370 12,594
Submission 2014 21,408 18,498 20,033 17,538 21,388 23,453 19,312 19,870 21,605 20,168 17,849
absolute change -8,660 -5,579 -6,369 -5,545 -5,571 -5,929 -6,207 -5,457 -4,942 -4,798 -5,255
relative change -40% -30% -32% -32% -26% -25% -32% -27% -23% -24% -29%
Heavy fuel oil
Submission 2015 68,484 56,323 60,984 78,182 78,257 96,625 96,017 85,865 86,934 86,687 81,171
Submission 2014 80,230 64,382 69,578 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,614 93,063 92,663 87,667
absolute change -11,746 -8,059 -8,594 -7,188 -7,020 -7,441 -7,813 -6,749 -6,129 -5,976 -6,496
relative change -15% -13% -12% -8% -8% -7% -8% -7% -7% -6% -7%

Emission Factors: Due to revision of the apllied approach, the entire set of emission factors has been revised and updated.

Regarding sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, the tier1 values apllied so far have been replaced by annual values reflecting the development of the fuels sulphur contents.

Table 4: Revised annual emission factors, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Diesel oil
Sulphur dioxide
Submission 2015 325 299 170 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 108 54 55 51 52
Submission 2014 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600
absolute change -275 -301 -430 -463 -462 -461 -460 -459 -458 -457 -492 -546 -545 -549 -548
relative change -46% -50% -72% -77% -77% -77% -77% -77% -76% -76% -82% -91% -91% -91% -91%
Particulate matter
Submission 2015 441 406 231 186 187 188 190 191 192 194 146 74 74 70 70
Submission 2014 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
absolute change 381 346 171 126 127 128 130 131 132 134 86 14 14 10 10
relative change 635% 577% 285% 210% 212% 214% 216% 218% 221% 223% 144% 23% 24% 16% 17%
Heavy fuel oil
Sulphur dioxide
Submission 2015 1,166 1,202 1,222 1,242 1,248 1,256 1,264 1,274 714 717 722 728 488 492 496
Submission 2014 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400
absolute change -234 -198 -178 -158 -152 -144 -136 -126 -686 -683 -678 -672 -912 -908 -904
relative change -17% -14% -13% -11% -11% -10% -10% -9% -49% -49% -48% -48% -65% -65% -65%
Particulate matter
Submission 2015 613 631 642 653 656 660 664 669 375 377 379 382 257 258 260
Submission 2014 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
absolute change 553 571 582 593 596 600 604 609 315 317 319 322 197 198 200
relative change 922% 952% 970% 988% 994% 1000% 1007% 1016% 525% 528% 532% 537% 328% 330% 334%

Furthermore, for all othe main pollutants and carbon monoxide, default tier1 values have been replaced by country specific data:

Table 5: Revised tier1 emission factors, in [kg/TJ]
Diesel oil Heavy fuel oil
NH3 NMVOC NOx CO NH3 NMVOC NOx CO
Submission 2015 0,32 54 1,059 157 0,33 158 1,294 192
Submission 2014 4,00 52 1,800 180 4,00 52 1,800 180
absolute change -3,68 2 -741 -23 -3,67 106 -506 12
relative change -92% 5% -41% -13% -92% 205% -28% 7%

Besides the revisions, new EF have been implemented for several PAHs, replacing 'NE' notation keys:

Table 6: Newly implemented tier1 default emission factors, in [mg/TJ]
Diesel oil Heavy fuel oil
B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P
1,164 801 184 1,235 849 195

As a result, the summatory emission factors for PAH 1-4 were revised accordingly:

Table 7: Revised summatory tier1 emission factors for PAH 1-4, in [mg/TJ]
Diesel oil Heavy fuel oil
Submission 2015 2,847 3,020
Submission 2014 930 930
absolute change 1,917 2,090
relative change 206% 225%

Emissions: Given the broad revisions and further changes described for AD and EF above, all emissions data has been recalculated but cannot be displayed here in full detail.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2012 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 10.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Planned improvements

FAQs


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BSH, 2015:
3. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-d-navigation
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.c Railways; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-c-railways
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013c: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008; URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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