1.A.3.d ii (a) - National Maritime Navigation

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Within 1.A.3.d ii (a) emissions from national maritime navigation are described in more detail.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.d ii (a) National Maritime Navigation T3 NS, M T1, T3, CS, D not included separately in key category analysis

Method

Activity data

Primary fuel data for national maritime navigation is included in NEB lines 6 ('International Deep-Sea Bunkers') and 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') for IMO and non-IMO ships respectively.

The annual shares used for national maritime navigation are therefore calculated within (BSH, 2015) [1], where ship movement data (AIS signal) allows for a bottom-up approach providing the needed differentiation.

Table 1: Overview of specific fuel consumption estimates for IMO- and non-IMO ships in domestic maritime navigation, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
ships with IMO registration
Diesel Oil 10,144 7,165 7,547 7,704 8,003 8,121 7,147 6,340 6,265 6,615 6,895 6,037 5,527 5,402 5,756 5,725
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Heavy Fuel Oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 8,697 9,070 9,231 8,069 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,372
IMO TOTAL 21,866 15,205 16,124 16,401 17,074 17,352 15,216 13,512 13,270 14,041 14,691 12,770 11,641 11,363 12,166 12,097
ships without IMO registration
Diesel Oil 5,796 4,094 4,312 4,402 4,573 4,640 4,084 3,622 3,580 3,780 3,939 3,449 3,158 3,087 3,289 3,271
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 79 104 169 195 238 205 202 215 189
Heavy Fuel Oil NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
non-IMO TOTAL 5,796 4,094 4,312 4,402 4,573 4,640 4,119 3,702 3,684 3,949 4,134 3,687 3,363 3,289 3,504 3,460
1.A.3.d ii (a) TOTAL 27,662 19,299 20,436 20,803 21,647 21,992 19,335 17,214 16,953 17,989 18,825 16,457 15,004 14,652 15,670 15,557
Table 2: Annual over-all fuel consumption, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 15,940 11,258 11,860 12,107 12,576 12,761 11,231 9,962 9,845 10,395 10,834 9,486 8,685 8,489 9,046 8,996
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 79 104 169 195 238 205 202 215 189
Heavy Fuel Oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 8,697 9,070 9,231 8,069 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,372
1.A.3.d ii (a) TOTAL 27,662 19,299 20,436 20,803 21,647 21,992 19,335 17,214 16,953 17,989 18,825 16,457 15,004 14,652 15,670 15,557

Emission factors

The emission factors applied here, are derived from different sources and therefore are of very different quality.

For the main pollutants, country-specific implied values are used, that are based on tier3 EF included in the BSH model [1] which mainly relate on values from the EMEP/EEA guidebook 2013 [2]. These modelled IEFs take into account the ship specific information derived from AIS data as well as the mix of fuel-qualities applied depending on the type of ship and the current state of activity.

For heavy metals and PAHs, HCB and PCBs, tier1 defaults from [2] are used directly, whereas for PCDD/F values from a study carried out for UBA are applied. - Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways and heavy duty road vehicles have been applied as a gap-filling proxy [3], [4].

Regarding PCDD/F, a country-specific value for diesel oil from (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] has been applied.

Table 4: (I)EF values used for 2013 estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
Diesel fuels 0.322 72.62 1,0552 52.23 1732 70.83 70.84 70.84 3.036 0.236 0.706 0.936 1.166 20.56 23.36 2.336 27.96 6987 1,1647 8018 1848 2,8479 9310 1.866 8.856
Heavy Fuel Oil 0.332 158.42 1,2942 4993 1922 2623 2624 2624 4.465 0.505 0.505 16.95 17.85 31.05 7935 5.205 29.75 7417 1,2357 8498 1958 3,0209 9310 4.465 14.15

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier3 values from [1]
3 country-specific tier1 values from [1]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2, [3]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1, [3]
7 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013: chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1, [4]
8 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel [5]
9 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
10 tier1 values derived from [5]

Discussion of emission trends

Sub-sector 1.A.3.d ii (a) is not considered separately within the key category analysis.

Basically, for all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in over-all fuel consumption:

For sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, emission trends not only follow the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation:

Recalculations

As this sub-sector is included in the national emissions reporting for the first time, no recalculations can be described here.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of the BSH model used, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.


Bibliography
1. BSH, 2015:
2. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation - http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-d-navigation
3. EMEP/EEA, 2013c: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.c Railways - http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-c-railways
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport - http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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