1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Mobile Sources in Households and Gardening fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from combustion engine driven devices such as motor saws and lawn mowers are being reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category for (by 1)
1.A.4.b ii Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile T1 NS, M CS, D no key category

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Lawnmower.PNG

Method

Activity data

Activity data are taken from annual fuel delieveries data provided in line 66: 'Households' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) for Germany (AGEB, 2014) [1].

Table 1: Sources for consumption data in 1.A.4.b ii
Relevant years Data Source
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: Households
since 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 66: Households

Here, given the rare statistics on sold machinery, these activity data is of limited quality only (no annual but cascaded trend).

As the NEB only provides primary activity data for total biomass used in 'households', but does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for bioethanol used in NFR 1.A.4.b ii are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of bioethanol blended to fossil gasoline.

Table 2: Annual over-all fuel consumption in residential mobile sources, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Gasoline 2,210 2,421 2,412 2,412 2,411 2,412 2,412 2,411 2,191 2,191 2,190 3,465 3,399 4,092 3,841 4,032
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 17 32 30 42 99 131 168 178 173
TOTAL 2,210 2,421 2,412 2,412 2,411 2,412 2,414 2,428 2,223 2,220 2,232 3,564 3,530 4,260 4,019 4,205

With this submission, these total amounts of fuels used can be distributed onto 2- and 4-stroke engines used in households via annual shares from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b). [[(bibcuite 3)]]

Table 3: Annual shares of 2- and 4-stroke engines
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2-stroke engines
73% 51% 34% 34% 34% 34% 33% 32% 31% 30% 29% 28% 28% 27% 26% 25%
4-stroke engines
28% 50% 66% 67% 67% 67% 68% 69% 70% 71% 71% 72% 73% 73% 74% 75%
Table 4: Resulting estimates for fuel consumption in 2- and 4-stroke engines, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2-stroke engines
Gasoline 1,596 1,230 820 816 812 806 788 765 674 655 636 974 939 1,107 996 1,016
Bioethanol NE NE NE NE NE NE 1 5 10 9 12 28 36 45 46 44
4-stroke engines
Gasoline 614 1,191 1,592 1,596 1,599 1,606 1,623 1,646 1,517 1,536 1,555 2,491 2,459 2,985 2,845 3,016
Bioethanol NE NE NE NE NE NE 2 11 22 21 30 71 95 122 132 129
TOTAL 2,210 2,421 2,412 2,412 2,411 2,412 2,412 2,428 2,223 2,220 2,232 3,564 3,530 4,260 4,019 4,205

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5]. (* For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 EF apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for gasoline are applied to bioethanol, too.

Table 4: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
2-stroke 0.082 4,1252 55.12 0.373 15,2512 1092 1094 1094 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.146 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.06 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE
4-stroke 0.092 2,7002 1282 0.373 28,8272 2.652 2.654 2.654 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.146 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.06 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles [4]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road [5]
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [6]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.b ii is no key source.

Given the limited quality of gasoline delivery data from NEB line 66, the following emission trends are of limited significance only.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Recalculations occur due to the newly implemented differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines and, for 2012 alone, a revision of the National Energy Balance.
The following tables display the recalculated data.

Activity data: The following table provides the revised over-all activity data. Here, in contrast to earlier submissions, the source-specific consumption data has been calculated via annual shares from [3] instead of continual shares, resulting in significantly lower fuel consumtion estimates for this sector.

Table 3: Revision of activity data

Emission factors: Due to the newly implemented separate reporting of mobile fuel combustion in agriculture and forestry as well as the newly implemented differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines, new modelled IEF from [3] have been implemented. It is not possible to meaningfully display these revised and disggregated (implied) emission factors here.

In addition, as proposed in submission 2014, EF for PM emissions from gasoline combustion (forestry only) have been adopted from [3].
Furthermore, several tier1 default EF from [4] and [5] have been revise or are apllied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations (see table below).

Table 4: Newly implemented tier1 EFs
Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ]
1.21 0.12 0.002 1,164 801 184

Due to the newly implemented tier1 EF for B[b]F, B[k]F and I[1,2,3-c,d]P, the summatory EF applied for PAH 1-4 was revised accordingly:

Table 7: Revised summatory EF for PAH 1-4, in [mg/TJ]
Submission 2015 2,131
Submission 2014 930
absolute change +1,201
relative change +129%

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!).

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [5] and [6] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2014.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License