1.A.4.c ii (a) - Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery: Agriculture

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii (a) fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from agricultural off-road vehicles and mobile machinery are reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii (a) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M see 1.A.4.c ii
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Method

Activity data

Subsector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2014) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2014) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of agricultural vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil & Biodiesel 48% 47% 47% 48% 48% 49% 50% 51% 50% 51% 50% 50% 51% 50% 50% 50%
Gasoline & Bioethanol: 2-stroke 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Gasoline & Bioethanol: 4-stroke 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

(no gasoline used in agricultural vehicles and mobile machinery)

Table 3: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 54,230 45,809 45,000 43,645 43,558 43,150 42,692 41,453 41,099 42,098 42,547 45,201 45,224 44,962 44,204 45,609
Biodiesel NE NE NE NE NE NE 368 907 1,197 1,880 2,103 3,113 2,951 2,961 2,898 2,655
TOTAL 54,230 45,809 45,000 43,645 43,558 43,150 43,059 42,359 42,296 43,978 44,650 48,314 48,175 47,923 47,101 48,264

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

NOTE: As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Table 4: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
0.162 1172 6292 0.373 5392 92.32 92.34 92.34 1.215 0.236 0.125 0.0025 1.166 39.66 1.636 0.236 23.36 6986 1,1646 8005 1845 2,8477 1.628 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
annual country-specific tier2 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles [5]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road [6]
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [6]


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2012.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 10.02.2015), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery , im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; Table 3-1; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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