1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and machinery used in agriculture and forestry are reported seperately.

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NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M NOx (L), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T)
including mobile sources sub-categories
1.A.4.c ii (a) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Forestry T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2014) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2014) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and commercial/institutional used off-road vehicles (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.c ii to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil & Biodiesel
Agriculture 48% 47% 47% 48% 48% 49% 50% 51% 50% 51% 50% 50% 51% 50% 50% 50%
Forestry 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Gasoline & Bioethanol
Agriculture - 2-stroke1 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Agriculture - 4-stroke1 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Forestry - 2-stroke 68% 35% 32% 31% 31% 33% 33% 34% 34% 34% 32% 31% 31% 29% 28% 28%
Forestry - 4-stroke2 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

1 no gasoline used in agriculatural vehicles and mobile machinery
2 no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 3: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture and forestry, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 56,717 46,835 46,086 44,747 44,710 44,542 44,179 42,984 42,765 43,753 44,223 47,012 47,038 46,745 45,949 47,395
Gasoline 3,088 2,626 2,346 2,305 2,271 2,439 2,476 2,473 2,490 2,468 2,339 1,397 1,334 1,124 329 331
Biodiesel NE NE NE NE NE NE 380 940 1,246 1,954 2,186 3,238 3,069 3,079 3,012 2,759
Bioethanol NE NE NE NE NE NE 3 17 36 33 45 40 52 46 15 14
TOTAL 59,805 49,461 48,432 47,051 46,981 46,981 47,038 46,414 46,537 48,208 48,793 51,687 51,492 50,994 49,305 50,499

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Due to the separate reporting of mobile fuel combustion in agriculture and forestry as well as the differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines, a broad set of emission factors is applied here. For further information on the tier1 default EF as well as annual IEF modelled in TREMOD-MM please refer to the sub-chapters linked above.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.c ii is key source for emissions of NOx (L) PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L).

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Due to the fundamental revision of the applied approach, both activity data and emission factors changed widely. The following tables display the recalculated data.

Activity data: The following table provides the revised over-all activity data. Here, in contrast to earlier submissions, the source-specific consumption data has been calculated via annual shares from [3] (see table 2 above) instead of continual shares, resulting in significantly lower fuel consumtion estimates for this sector.

Table 3: Revision of activity data
1990 1995 2000 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
diesel fuels
Submission 2015 56,717 46,835 46,086 44,747 44,710 44,542 44,559 43,924 44,011 45,707 46,409 50,250 50,107
Submission 2014 64,892 56,723 55,135 53,049 52,121 51,396 50,211 48,538 49,746 50,045 51,327 55,589 54,671
absolute change -8,175 -9,889 -9,050 -8,302 -7,411 -6,854 -5,651 -4,614 -5,735 -4,338 -4,918 -5,339 -4,563
relative change -12.60% -17.43% -16.41% -15.65% -14.22% -13.34% -11.26% -9.51% -11.53% -8.67% -9.58% -9.60% -8.35%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2015 3,088 2,626 2,346 2,305 2,271 2,439 2,479 2,490 2,526 2,501 2,384 1,437 1,385
Submission 2014 3,889 4,325 4,294 4,273 4,293 4,294 4,302 4,260 4,328 4,325 4,297 2,653 2,616
absolute change -801 -1,699 -1,947 -1,968 -2,022 -1,854 -1,823 -1,770 -1,802 -1,824 -1,913 -1,216 -1,231
relative change -20.60% -39.28% -45.35% -46.06% -47.11% -43.19% -42.38% -41.55% -41.64% -42.17% -44.52% -45.82% -47.05%
over-all fuel consumption
Submission 2015 59,805 49,461 48,432 47,051 46,981 46,981 47,038 46,414 46,537 48,208 48,793 51,687 51,492
Submission 2014 68,781 61,049 59,429 57,322 56,415 55,689 54,513 52,798 54,074 54,370 55,623 58,242 57,286
absolute change -8,976 -11,588 -10,997 -10,270 -9,434 -8,709 -7,475 -6,384 -7,538 -6,162 -6,830 -6,555 -5,794
relative change -13.05% -18.98% -18.50% -17.92% -16.72% -15.64% -13.71% -12.09% -13.94% -11.33% -12.28% -11.25% -10.11%

Emission factors: Due to the newly implemented separate reporting of mobile fuel combustion in agriculture and forestry as well as the newly implemented differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines, new modelled IEF from [3] have been implemented. It is not possible to meaningfully display these revised and disggregated (implied) emission factors here.

In addition, as proposed in submission 2014, EF for PM emissions from gasoline combustion (forestry only) have been adopted from [3]

Furthermore, several tier1 default EF from [4] and [5] have been apllied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations:

Table 4: Newly implemented tier1 EFs
diesel fuels gasoline fuels
Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PM Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ]
1.21 0.12 0.002 1,164 801 184 81.50 0.76 0.20 0.007 919 90 204

Due to the newly implemented tier1 EF for B[b]F, B[k]F and I[1,2,3-c,d]P, the summatory EFs applied for PAH 1-4 were revised accordingly:

Table 7: Revised summatory EFs for PAH 1-4, in [mg/TJ]
diesel fuels gasoline fuels
Submission 2015 2,847 2,131
Submission 2014 930 930
absolute change 1,917 1,201
relative change 206% 129%

Emissions: Given the broad revisions and further changes described for AD and (I)EF above, all emission data have been recalculated but cannot be displayed here in full detail.

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2014.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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