1.A.4.c ii (b) - Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery: Forestry

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii (b) fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry are reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M see 1.A.4.c ii

Method

Activity data

Primary activity data (PAD) are taken from National Energy Balances (NEBs) line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2014) [((bicite 1))].

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2014) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 1: Annual contribution of forestry vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil & Biodiesel 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Gasoline & Bioethanol: 2-stroke 68% 35% 32% 31% 31% 33% 33% 34% 34% 34% 32% 31% 31% 29% 28% 28%
Gasoline & Bioethanol: 4-stroke 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

(only diesel and 2-stroke gasoline machinery used in forestry)

Table 2: Annual mobile fuel consumption in forestry, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 2,487 1,025 1,086 1,102 1,152 1,392 1,487 1,531 1,667 1,655 1,676 1,812 1,814 1,783 1,745 1,786
Gasoline 3,088 2,626 2,346 2,305 2,271 2,439 2,476 2,473 2,490 2,468 2,339 1,397 1,334 1,124 329 331
Biodiesel NE NE NE NE NE NE 13 33 49 74 83 125 118 117 114 104
Bioethanol NE NE NE NE NE NE 3 17 36 33 45 40 52 46 15 14
TOTAL 5,575 3,651 3,432 3,406 3,423 3,831 3,979 4,055 4,241 4,230 4,143 3,374 3,318 3,070 2,203 2,235

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5]. (* For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 EF apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
Diesel 0.182 34.82 4122 0.3723 2522 25.22 25.24 25.24 1.214 0.235 0.124 0.0024 1.165 39.65 1.635 0.235 23.35 6985 1,1645 8004 1844 2,8477 1.628 NE NE
Gasoline 0.092 3,1832 55.12 0.3673 15,6172 82.72 82.74 82.74 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.156 39.06 1.616 0.236 22.96 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles [4]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road [5]
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [6]


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2012.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 10.02.2015), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery , im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; Table 3-1; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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