1.A.5.b i - Emissions from Military Ground Vehicles

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b i - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from military ground-vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.5.b i Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Land-based T1, T2 NS CS, D see superordinate chapter

Method

Activity data

Basically, all fuel consumption in military vehicles is included in the primary acitivity data provided by the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2014).

As the NEB does not provide specific data for military use, the following additional sources are used:

For the years as of 1995, the official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2012), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), are used (BAFA, 2014) [1]. Provided in units of [1000 t], these amounts have to be converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values given by [2].

As the official mineral-oil data does not distinguish into fossil and biofuels but does provide amounts for inland deliveries of total diesel and gasoline fuels, no data on the consumption of biodiesel and bioethanol is available directly at the moment. Therefore, activity data for biofuels used in military vehicles are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares to the named total deliveries (see also: info on EF).

Table 2: Annual fuel consumption in military ground-vehicles and machinery, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 15,037 8,001 1,364 1,946 1,785 1,072 971 3,375 1,879 1,835 1,208 1,011 998 627 980 686
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 74 55 82 60 70 65 41 64 40
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175
TOTAL 36,545 17,801 8,841 9,826 9,742 7,868 6,768 10,353 8,151 6,771 6,318 6,128 6,112 5,556 5,404 4,993

Emission factors

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
Diesel 4.002 2742 1,3602 0.373 3502 1002 1004 1004 1.215 0.236 0.125 0.0025 1.166 39.66 1.636 0.236 23.3 6986 1,1646 8005 1845 2,8477 1.628 NE NE
Gasoline 4.002 3732 7252 0.403 4,0102 2.033 2.034 2.034 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.156 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.0 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 2.768 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 tier1 value from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 annual value from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 default from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles [4]
6 tier1 default from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road [5]
7 sum of tier1 default value applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 value derived from [6]

Discussion of emission trends

This sub-category is not considered separately in the key category analysis.

Due to the application of very several tier1 emission factors, most emission trends reported for this sub-category only reflect the trend in fuel deliveries.
Therefore, the fuel-consumption dependend trends in emission estimates are only influenced by the annual fuel mix.

Here, for sulphur dioxide, this consumption-based falling trend is intensified by the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

Over-all particulate matter emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption.
Here, until 1997, the emission values reported for totals suspended particles (TSP) are slightly higher than those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 due to the additional TSP emissions from leaded gasoline that was banned in 1997.

Recalculations

As no revisions occured in the fuel-deliveries statistics, all activity data remain unchanged.

Emission factors: All values derived from [3] and [6] remain unchanged. For Pb, Hg, As, B[b]F, B[k]F and I[1,2,3-c,d]P, 'NE' notation keys have been replaced by tier1-EF from [4] and [5].

Table 6: Newly implemented tier1 EFs for emissions from diesel fuels
diesel fuels gasoline fuels
Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P Pb Hg As B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ]
1.21 0.12 0.002 1,164 801 184 0.76 0.20 0.006 918 90 204 2,131

Due to the newly implemented tier1 EF for B[b]F, B[k]F and I[1,2,3-c,d]P, the summatory EF applied for PAH 1-4 was revised accordingly:

Table 7: Revised summatory EF for PAH 1-4, in [mg/TJ]
Submission 2015 2,847
Submission 2014 930
absolute change +1,917
relative change +206%

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2012 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 10.1 - Recalculations.no changes but new pollutants

Furthermore, the implementation of tier1 EF for exhaust heavy metals and PAHs from [5] and [6] resulted in new emission estimates for this sector.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2012 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 10.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Given the limited quality of the emission factors applied, the inventory compiler will check a possible revision at least for the main pollutants.


Bibliography
1. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 28.11.2014), Eschborn.
2. AGEB, 2014b: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Daten - Sondertabellen - Heizwerte der Energieträger und Faktoren für die Umrechnung von spezifischen Mengeneinheiten in Wärmeinheiten (2000-2013); URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=65 (Aufruf: 28.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 360 16 018, Heidelberg, Korrigendum 11.02.2010.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013a: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008, URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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