1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.a i (i) International Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (i) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: LTO emissions during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
14,442 19,796 22,758 22,540 21,644 22,502 24,973 26,673 27,925 29,240 29,933 28,782 29,806 31,329 31,106 30,654

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting are derived from TREMOD-AV and underlying studies.
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: Overview of (I)EFs used for 2013 emissions estimates
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter4 Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH5 Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
4.001 20.42 3182 4.651 2202 1.97 1.97 1.974 NE NE NE NE 935 935 91.1 208 2.168 NE

1 tier1 EF derived from TREMOD AV [3]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from TREMOD AV
3 annual tier2 EF derived from TREMOD AV
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 EF from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [4]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation - LTO is no key category.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, both the shares of over-all fuel used for international flights (see superordinate chapter) and for the LTO cycle have been revised widely (see below), resulting in recalculated emission estimates for this NFR sub-sector.

Table 3: Revised annual LTO shares for international flights from Germany
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Submission 2015 8.91 9.67 8.70 8.81 8.51 8.69 8.81 8.61 8.57 8.63 8.73 8.64 9.04 9.89 9.12
Submission 2014 8.06 8.64 8.14 8.23 7.94 8.15 8.34 8.23 8.24 8.30 8.43 8.25 8.67 9.52 8.83
absolute change 0.85 1.03 0.56 0.58 0.57 0.53 0.47 0.38 0.33 0.33 0.30 0.39 0.37 0.37 0.30
relative change 10.54% 11.93% 6.86% 7.04% 7.17% 6.53% 5.66% 4.67% 3.96% 3.99% 3.56% 4.69% 4.25% 3.89% 3.36%
Table 4: Resulting revised LTO fuel consumption of international flights from Germany, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Submission 2015 14,442 19,796 22,758 22,540 21,644 22,502 24,973 26,673 27,925 29,240 29,933 28,782 29,806 31,329 31,106
Submission 2014 13,232 18,000 21,701 21,463 20,602 21,543 24,089 25,933 27,255 28,474 29,250 27,861 28,981 30,617 30,491
absolute change 1,210 1,795 1,057 1,077 1,042 959 885 741 669 766 683 921 825 712 615
relative change 9.14% 9.97% 4.87% 5.02% 5.06% 4.45% 3.67% 2.86% 2.46% 2.69% 2.33% 3.30% 2.85% 2.33% 2.02%

Furthermore, some country-specific emission factors were re-modelled within TREMOD AV:

Table 5: Revised annual country-specific emission factors, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NMVOC
Submission 2015 73.08 71.97 46.60 33.48 32.20 30.09 29.85 26.43 23.29 23.95 22.86
Submission 2014 104.88 75.33 57.21 53.43 54.03 55.26 54.86 56.48 59.51 59.04 59.69
absolute change -31.81 -3.36 -10.61 -19.96 -21.83 -25.16 -25.01 -30.05 -36.22 -35.09 -36.83
relative change -30.33% -4.46% -18.55% -37.35% -40.40% -45.54% -45.58% -53.20% -60.86% -59.43% -61.70%
NOx
Submission 2015 289.44 283.80 283.69 291.76 292.79 295.91 297.71 304.22 310.24 309.97 313.54
Submission 2014 292.68 303.57 292.31 286.59 286.97 287.23 288.43 291.37 294.72 296.90 298.61
absolute change -3.24 -19.78 -8.62 5.17 5.83 8.68 9.29 12.85 15.52 13.08 14.93
relative change -1.11% -6.51% -2.95% 1.80% 2.03% 3.02% 3.22% 4.41% 5.27% 4.40% 5.00%
CO
Submission 2015 274.93 254.27 254.91 239.40 238.78 234.37 234.63 232.97 228.99 229.22 227.30
Submission 2014 381.25 348.45 337.14 345.85 347.57 352.10 349.88 350.85 355.68 354.34 356.51
absolute change -106.32 -94.18 -82.23 -106.45 -108.79 -117.73 -115.25 -117.87 -126.69 -125.12 -129.20
relative change -27.89% -27.03% -24.39% -30.78% -31.30% -33.44% -32.94% -33.60% -35.62% -35.31% -36.24%

Furthermore, tier1 default EF for PAHs 1 to 4 from [4] have been applied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations:

Table 6: Newly implemented emission factors, in [mg/TJ]
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
934.58 934.58 91.12 207.94 2.168.22

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2012.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 10.02.2015), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
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