1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation: Cruise

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.a i (ii) International Civil Aviation: Cruise T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in key category analysis

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (ii) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: Cruise emissions from international flights from German airports during cruise stage (above 3,000 feet of altitude) are reported.

In the following, information on sub-category specific activity data, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during cruise-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during cruise-stage, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
147,594 184,811 238,862 233,282 232,611 236,568 258,571 283,025 298,107 309,570 312,989 304,286 299,899 285,442 309,790 316,253

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting are derived from TREMOD-AV and underlying studies.
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: (I)EFs used for 2013 emissions estimates
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter4 Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH5 Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
4.001 3.452 3792 4.651 31.02 4.65 4.65 4.654 NE NE NE NE 935 935 91.1 208 2.168 NE

1 tier1 EF derived from TREMOD AV [3]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from TREMOD AV
3 annual tier2 EF derived from TREMOD AV
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 EF from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [4]

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation - Cruise is not included in the national emission totals and hence not included in the key category analysis.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, both the shares of over-all fuel used for domestic flights (see superordinate chapter) and for the LTO cycle have been revised widely (see below), resulting in recalculated emission estimates for this NFR sub-sector.

Table 3: Revised cruise-phase fuel consumption of international flights from Germany, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Submission 2015 147,594 184,811 238,862 233,282 232,611 236,568 258,571 283,025 298,107 309,570 312,989 304,286 299,899 285,442 309,790
Submission 2014 150,877 190,244 244,873 239,281 238,769 242,691 264,887 289,224 303,568 314,627 317,776 309,663 305,219 291,004 314,892
absolute change -3,284 -5,432 -6,011 -5,999 -6,158 -6,123 -6,316 -6,199 -5,461 -5,057 -4,787 -5,377 -5,320 -5,563 -5,102
relative change -2.18% -2.86% -2.45% -2.51% -2.58% -2.52% -2.38% -2.14% -1.80% -1.61% -1.51% -1.74% -1.74% -1.91% -1.62%

Furthermore, some country-specific emission factors were re-modelled within TREMOD AV:

Table 4: Revised annual country-specific emission factors, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NMVOC
Submission 2015 8.13 5.86 4.62 3.98 3.98 3.92 3.90 3.90 3.82 3.62 3.49
Submission 2014 9.63 9.32 9.81 10.48 10.81 11.11 11.25 11.51 11.95 11.99 12.28
absolute change -1.50 -3.46 -5.19 -6.50 -6.83 -7.19 -7.35 -7.61 -8.13 -8.37 -8.79
relative change -15.57% -37.15% -52.88% -62.06% -63.19% -64.73% -65.33% -66.10% -68.02% -69.81% -71.56%
NOx
Submission 2015 359.68 345.61 336.33 342.92 343.95 347.12 348.96 354.05 362.02 363.95 372.36
Submission 2014 346.66 339.76 321.24 314.97 315.72 315.87 315.83 316.39 318.34 320.19 322.06
absolute change 13.02 5.85 15.09 27.95 28.22 31.25 33.13 37.66 43.68 43.76 50.30
relative change 3.76% 1.72% 4.70% 8.88% 8.94% 9.89% 10.49% 11.90% 13.72% 13.67% 15.62%
CO
Submission 2015 49.19 43.36 38.96 33.65 33.62 33.32 32.60 32.64 32.25 31.78 31.44
Submission 2014 29.62 28.40 29.53 29.10 29.27 29.37 29.33 29.43 29.55 29.37 29.38
absolute change 19.57 14.96 9.43 4.55 4.34 3.95 3.28 3.21 2.70 2.41 2.06
relative change 66.07% 52.66% 31.91% 15.65% 14.83% 13.46% 11.17% 10.92% 9.15% 8.20% 7.02%

Furthermore, tier1 default EF for PAHs 1 to 4 from [4] have been applied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations:

Table 5: Newly implemented emission factors, in [mg/TJ]
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
934.58 934.58 91.12 207.94 2,168.22

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2012.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 10.02.2015), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
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