1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.a ii (i) Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO emissions from domestic flights between German airports occuring during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
10,119 10,303 11,160 10,589 10,054 9,782 10,018 10,235 10,544 10,533 10,690 10,415 10,441 10,584 9,848 8,614

As explained above, the use of aviation gasoline is - due to a lack of further information - assumed to entirely take place within the LTO-range. As soon as better data allows the split-up of the consumption of aviation gasoline onto national and international aviation and onto both flight stages, Germany will accordingly adjust its inventory.

Table 2: annual avgas consumption, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2,438 1,142 1,120 984 823 766 659 698 653 611 638 594 568 614 558 496

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting were ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [3].
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter4 Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH7 Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
Kerosene 4.001 17.82 2892 4.651 2332 1.97 1.97 1.974 NE NE NE NE 935 935 91.1 208 2.168 NE
Avgas NE 1863 2613 0.511 15,4063 NE NE 15.175 9.486 NE NE NE 919 919 89.6 205 2.133 NE

1 tier1 EF derived from TREMOD AV [3]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from TREMOD AV
3 annual tier2 EF derived from TREMOD AV
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 AvGas EF(TSP): calculated from the EF(Pb): EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb) - see road transport
6 AvGas EF(Pb): calculated from the average lead content of AvGas 100 LL (low-lead): 0.56 g Pb/liter
7 tier1 EF from (EMEP/EEA, 2013)

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation - LTO is no key source.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2014, both the shares of over-all fuel used for international flights (see superordinate chapter) and for the LTO cycle have been revised widely (see below), resulting in recalculated emission estimates for this NFR sub-sector.

Table 4: Revised annual LTO shares for domestic flights
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Submission 2015 32.34 35.74 31.31 31.19 30.34 29.86 30.67 29.99 29.95 29.57 30.18 30.48 32.58 36.07 33.20
Submission 2014 31.35 35.37 31.09 31.56 31.68 31.99 32.86 32.59 31.97 31.87 32.48 32.07 34.53 39.56 36.28
absolute change 0.99 0.37 0.22 -0.36 -1.34 -2.13 -2.19 -2.60 -2.02 -2.30 -2.30 -1.58 -1.95 -3.50 -3.08
relative change 3.16% 1.04% 0.71% -1.15% -4.24% -6.66% -6.68% -7.98% -6.31% -7.22% -7.08% -4.93% -5.66% -8.84% -8.49%
Table 5: Resulting revised LTO fuel consumption of domestic flights, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Submission 2015 10,119 10,303 11,160 10,589 10,054 9,782 10,018 10,235 10,544 10,533 10,690 10,415 10,441 10,584 9,848
Submission 2014 9,159 8,910 9,541 9,159 8,879 8,828 8,950 9,344 9,723 9,985 10,172 9,527 9,514 9,691 9,134
absolute change 960 1,393 1,619 1,430 1,176 954 1,068 892 821 548 518 889 926 893 714
relative change 10.48% 15.63% 16.97% 15.62% 13.24% 10.81% 11.93% 9.54% 8.45% 5.49% 5.09% 9.33% 9.74% 9.22% 7.82%

Furthermore, some country-specific emission factors have were re-modelled within TREMOD AV:

Table 6: Revised annual country-specific emission factors (for kerosene), in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
NMVOC
Submission 2015 47.22 27.36 21.04 20.12 19.36 21.00 19.95 17.27 15.57 16.68 17.04
Submission 2014 62.31 31.51 36.93 35.44 37.35 39.14 41.07 41.95 42.62 44.24 46.52
absolute change -15.09 -4.15 -15.89 -15.32 -17.99 -18.14 -21.11 -24.68 -27.05 -27.56 -29.48
relative change -24.21% -13.16% -43.02% -43.23% -48.17% -46.36% -51.41% -58.83% -63.47% -62.30% -63.37%
NOx
Submission 2015 272.69 266.81 280.04 260.40 258.64 260.26 270.26 280.64 284.72 283.00 285.08
Submission 2014 258.89 265.31 258.81 241.52 238.38 238.30 242.98 244.97 243.49 246.87 249.71
absolute change 13.80 1.50 21.23 18.89 20.26 21.96 27.28 35.68 41.22 36.14 35.37
relative change 5.33% 0.57% 8.20% 7.82% 8.50% 9.22% 11.23% 14.56% 16.93% 14.64% 14.17%
CO
Submission 2015 285.18 285.32 271.82 282.56 279.33 273.29 265.25 247.37 241.58 246.62 244.56
Submission 2014 364.83 346.31 355.36 364.06 368.58 372.27 370.08 372.08 371.99 375.33 379.22
absolute change -79.65 -60.98 -83.54 -81.50 -89.25 -98.98 -104.82 -124.71 -130.41 -128.71 -134.66
relative change -21.83% -17.61% -23.51% -22.39% -24.21% -26.59% -28.32% -33.52% -35.06% -34.29% -35.51%

Furthermore, tier1 default EF for PAHs 1 to 4 from [4] have been applied for the first time, replacing 'NE' notations:

Table 7: Newly implemented emission factors, in [mg/TJ]
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4 B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
Jet Kerosene Avgas
934.58 934.58 91.12 207.94 2.168.22 919.20 919.20 89.62 204.52 2,132.55

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

FAQs

Why are emissions from aviation gasoline reported using a Tier 1 approach whereas for jet kerosene Tier 2a has been applied?

For reporting emissions from the cosumption of jet kerosene, the party uses an annual split factor provided by Eurocontrol to devide the total amount of kerosene used (from Energy Balances & Official oil data for the Federal Republic of Germany) onto national and international civil aviation. For aviation gasoline, such split factor does not exist. - Furthermore, the deviation of kerosene used onto flight stages LTO and Cruise has been carried out using data on numbers of take-offs from German airports provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. At the moment, such data is not available for aircraft using aviation gasoline.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb).
The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2012.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 10.02.2015), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
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