1.A.4.a i - Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description


The source category 1.A.4.a.i - Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion emissions from commercial and institutional combustion installations are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.a i Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion T2, T3 NS CS NMVOC (L/T), CO (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T), TSP (L/T) - PCDD/F (L), PAH (L/T)


For activity data and emission factors see 1.A.4. - Other: Stationary Combustion.

Table: Emission factors for commercial and institutional combustion installations
Fuel [kg/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Hard Coal 76 332 2,709 48 18.5 17.6 15.7 60,000 16.3
Residual Wood 93 9.3 2,201 99 68 63 55 430,000 355.3
Light Heating Oil 44 60 12 2.6 1.3 1.3 1.3 4,000 2.7
Natural Gas 27 0.5 11 0.36 0.03 0.03 0.03 40 1.6

TSP and PM emission factors are to a large extend based on measurements without condensed compounds, according to CEN-TS 15883, annex I.
PAH measurement data contain the following individual substances: Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(j)fluoranthene, Benzo(ghi)perylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene(+Trihenylene) and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, as a specific part of US EPA.

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following charts give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutants.

Fuel Consumption

Annual fluctuations of all fuel types in source category 1.A.4 depend on heat demand subject to winter temperatures. From 1990 to the present time, fuel use changed considerably from coal & lignite to natural gas. The consumption of light heating oil decreased as well. As the activity data for light heating oil is based on the sold amount, it fluctuates due to fuel prices and changing storage amounts.
The remarkable decrease of hard coal consumption in 2012 is caused by a change in statistics (data source). It's planned to revise the NEB back to 2003 in order to assure time series consistency.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds - NMVOC and Carbon monoxide - CO

Main driver of the NMVOC and CO emission trends is the decreasing lignite consumption: Since 1990 the fuel use changed from solid fuels causing high NMVOC and CO emissions to gaseous fuels producing much lower emissions.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5 & PM10 & TSP

The emission trends for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP are also influenced severely by decreasing coal consumption in small combustion plants, particularly in the period from 1990 to 1994. Since 1995 the emission trend hardly changed. Increasing emissions in the last years are caused by the rising wood combustion.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

The main driver of the POPs emission trend are coal and fuel-wood. PCDD/F emissions decrease from 1990 to 2003 due to decreasing lignite consumption. The use of firewood and therefore PCDD/F emissions from wood combustion show a constant development.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2012) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2012 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations.

Planned improvements

It is planned to calculate a complete time series for liquid biomass in order to ensure the time consistency. Currently only data for 2010-2013 are available.
Furthermore it's planned to evaluate dioxine emission factors, especially in terms of natural gas and heating oil.

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