3.B - Manure Management

Last updated on 19 Oct 2015 14:49 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
3.B Manure Management see sub-category details
consisting of / including source categories
3.B.1.a & 1.b Cattle T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) NH3 (L/T), NMVOC (for 3.B.1.a: L, for 3.B.1.b: L/T), for 3.B.1.a: PM2.5 (L)
3.B.3, 3.B.4.d, 3.B.4.e Sheep, Goats, Horses T2 (NH3, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3,NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC)
3.B.3 Swine T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) for 3.B.3 (all animals): NH3 (L/T), TSP (L), PM10 (L)
3.B.4.g i-iv Poultry T2 (NH3, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) for ii&iii: TSP (L), for i-iii: PM10 (L/T)
Kuhstall.png

Country specific

In 2013, NH3 emissions from sector 3.B (manure management) derived up to 75.6 % from total agricultural emissions, which is equal to ~ 4478.6 Gg NH3. Within those emissions 58.7 % originate from cattle manure (~ 281.0 Gg), 25.6 % from pig manure (ca. 122.4 Gg), and 12.7 % from poultry manure (~ 60.6 Gg). The impact of anaerobic digestion of manure on the emission calculations is considered and leads to an increase of NH3 emissions from animal husbandry of 1.4 Gg in 2013. This increase is mainly caused by higher emissions during application of digested manure. (For details see Rösemann et al., 2015, [1]).
NOX emissions from sector 3 B (manure management) contribute only 1.9 % (~ 2.0 Gg) to the total agricultural NOX emissions. They are calculated proportionally to N2O emissions. , see Rösemann et al., 2015, [1]).
NMVOC emissions from sector 3.B (manure management) derived up to 95.1 % from total agricultural NMVOC emissions, which is equal to ~ 198.4 Gg NMVOC. (see Rösemann et al., 2015 [1]).

Activity data for all pollutants

The Federal Statistical Agency and the Statistical Agencies of the federal states carry out surveys in order to collect, along with other data, the head counts of animals. In general the results of these surveys are used for emission calculations, for details see Rösemann et. al. (2015) [1]).
The animal population figures the actual inventory is based on are presented in Table 1. Buffaloes are included in the cattle population figures, mules and asses are included in the horse population figures. In the first years after the German reunification (1990), animal livestock decreased markedly. The head counts for cattle, swine, horses, sheep and goats decreased further between 2005 and 2010 while in 2011, 2012, and 2013 the figures of dairy cattle and pigs slightly increased. As in 2011 and 2012 there was no survey on poultry population data, the 2011 and 2012 figures are interpolated between 2010 and 2013. Since the poultry figures counted 2013 were massively higher (about one third) than 2010 the interpolated poultry figures for 2011 and 2012 are markedly higher than in the previous submission where they were extrapolated. Data for each animal category for the entire time series from 1990 until 2013 including a detailed description can be found in the National Inventory Report (NIR 2015 [11]), Chapter 5.1.3.2.

Table 1: Population of animals
Population of animals (in 1.000)
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
dairy cattle 6354.6 5229.2 4569.8 4236.4 4183.1 4190.1 4190.5 4267.6
other cattle 13133.4 10661.2 9968.9 8800.4 8628.8 8340.4 8319.1 8418.4
buffalo NO NO IE IE IE IE IE IE
mules and asses IE IE IE IE IE IE IE IE
horses 499.5 634.1 499.5 508.4 461.8 461.6 461.5 461.3
sheep 3266.1 2990.7 2743.3 2643.1 2245.0 1979.7 1965.9 1877.2
goats 90.0 100.0 140.0 170.0 149.9 143.4 136.8 130.2
swine 26502.5 20387.3 21767.7 22742.8 22244.4 22787.8 23648.2 23391.3
laying hens 53450.5 45317.3 44225.6 38203.9 35314.2 39773.3 44232.4 48691.5
broilers 35393.0 42025.8 50359.9 56762.6 67428.2 77086.7 86745.2 96403.7
turkeys 5029.2 6742.0 8893.1 10611.0 11344.0 11980.8 12617.6 13254.5
pullets 17210.8 14592.0 14240.5 12301.5 11371.0 12806.8 14242.6 15678.5
ducks 2013.7 1933.7 2055.7 2352.3 3164.3 3029.6 2894.8 2760.0
geese 781.5 617.0 404.8 329.7 278.1 362.9 447.7 532.6

Additional data

Emission calculations in accordance with a Tier-2 or Tier 3 method require data on animal performance (animal weight, weight gain, milk yield, milk protein content, milk fat content, numbers of births, numbers of eggs and weights of eggs) and on the relevant feeding details (phase feeding, feed components, protein and energy content, digestibility and feed efficiency). To subdivide officially recorded total numbers of turkeys into roosters and hens, the respective population percentages need to be known.
Most of the data mentioned above is not available from official statistics and was obtained from the open literature, from association publications, from regulations for agricultural consulting in Germany and from expert judgements.
Up to 1999, frequency distributions of feeding strategies, husbandry systems (shares of pasturing/stabling; shares of various housing methods), storage types as well as techniques of farm manure spreading were obtained with the help of the RAUMIS agricultural sector model (Regionalisiertes Agrar- und UmweltInformationsystem für Deutschland; Regionalised agricultural and environmental information system for Germany). RAUMIS has been developed and is operated by the Institute of Rural Studies of the Thünen Institut (Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries). For an introduction to RAUMIS see WEINGARTEN (1995 [6]); a detailed description is provided in HENRICHSMEYER et al. (1996 [7]).
An update of the RAUMIS data was not possible before 2012 when the results of the 2010 official agricultural census and the simultaneous survey of agricultural production methods (Landwirtschaftliche Zählung 2010, Statistisches Bundesamt) as well as the 2011 survey on manure application practices (Erhebung über Wirtschaftsdüngerausbringung, Statistisches Bundesamt) became available. For details see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1].
The gaps between the latest RAUMIS data (1999) and the new data were closed by linear interpolation on district level. For 2011, 2012, and 2013 the 2010 data was kept, with the exception that for 2012 and 2013 it was assumed that liquid manure applied to bare soil was incorporated within 4 hours. This assumption is based on administrative instructions of the German Federal States for implementing the German Fertilization Ordinance in 2011. NIR 2015 [11]), Chapter 18.3.2. provides time series of the distribution data mentioned above, including corresponding EFs.

NH3 & NOx

Methodology

N in manure management

N excretion

In order to determine NH3 and NOx emissions from manure management of a specific animal category, the individual N excretion rate must be known. While default exrection rates are provided by IPCC Guidelines, the German agricultural emission inventory uses N mass balances to calculate the N excretions of almost all animal categories to be reported. N mass balance calculations consider N intake with feed, N retention due to growth, N contained in milk and eggs, and N in offspring. Table 2 presents mean N excretions, see also the National Inventory Report (NIR 2015 [11]) ], Chapter 5.1.3.4, and mean TAN excretions (see below). For methodological details and mass balance input data see Rösemann et. al. (2015) [1].

Table 2: Mean N excretions and TAN contents (%)
Mean N excretions in kg/place and year
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
dairy cattle 97.6 102.9 109.9 115.3 116.4 117.3 117.6 117.4
other cattle 41.2 43.0 43.8 43.3 43.1 42.9 42.7 42.7
horses 48.2 48.1 49.0 48.8 48.8 48.8 48.8 48.8
sheep 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
goats 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0
swine 12.1 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.8 12.9 12.9 12.9
laying hens 0.81 0.80 0.75 0.82 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.87
broilers 0.48 0.44 0.49 0.52 0.60 0.57 0.52 0.48
turkeys 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3
pullets 0.39 0.35 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
ducks 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
geese 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55
Mean TAN content in %
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
dairy cattle 60.5 58.9 57.9 56.7 55.7 55.4 55.2 55.1
other cattle 63.7 63.4 63.2 63.1 63.1 63.1 63.1 63.1
horses 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0
sheep 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
goats 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
swine 74.3 74.1 73.8 73.7 73.3 73.2 73.0 73.0
laying hens 70.2 69.8 69.1 69.4 69.9 69.9 69.9 70.0
broilers 60.8 60.1 58.0 55.1 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0
turkeys 63.9 63.9 62.2 63.0 62.1 62.3 62.9 62.9
pullets 69.4 69.4 69.4 69.4 69.4 69.4 69.4 69.4
ducks 49.9 49.9 49.9 49.9 49.9 49.9 49.9 49.9
geese 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0

N mass flow and emission assessment

The calculation of the emissions of NH3, N2O, NOX and N2 from German animal husbandry is based on the so-called N mass flow approach. This method reconciles the requirements of both the Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook for NH3 emissions and the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas emissions (Dämmgen and Hutchings (2008) [3]). According to the N mass flow approach the N flow within the manure management system is treated as depicted in the figure below. In Europe, this approach is also applied in Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In spite of national peculiarities, a comparison of the national solutions showed identical results as long as standardised data sets for the input variables were used (Reidy et al. (2008) [2]). The approach differentiates between N excreted with faeces (organic nitrogen Norg, i. e. undigested feed N) and urine (total ammoniacal nitrogen TAN, i. e. fraction of feed N metabolized).

Not explicitly shown in the N mass flow scheme is air scrubbing in housing and anaerobic digestion of manure. These issues are separately described farther below.

N_flow_model.jpg

General scheme of N flows in animal husbandry
m: mass from which emissions may occur. Narrow broken arrows: TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen); narrow continuous arrows: organic N. The horizontal arrows denote the process of immobilisation in systems with bedding occurring in the house, and the process of mineralisation during storage, which occurs in any case. Broad hatched arrows denote emissions assigned to manure management: E emissions of N species (Eyard NH3 emissions from yards; Ehouse NH3 emissions from house; Estorage NH3, N2O, NOX and N2 emissions from storage; Eapplic NH3 emissions during and after spreading. Broad open arrows mark emissions from soils: Egraz NH3, N2O, NOX and N2 emissions during and after grazing; Ereturned N2O, NOX and N2 emissions from soil resulting from manure input.

The figure allows tracing of the pathways of the two N fractions after excretion. The various locations where excretion may take place are considered. The partial mass flows down to the input to soil are depicted. During storage Norg can be transformed into TAN and vice versa. Both the way and the amount of such transformations may be influenced by manure treatment processes like, e. g., anaerobic digestion where a considerable fraction of Norg is mineralized to TAN. For details see Rösemann et. al. (2015) [1] Where ever NH3 is emitted, the formation is related to the amount of the TAN fraction. NOX emissions (i. e. NO emissions) are calculated proportionally to the N2O emissions. The latter are related to the total amount of N available (Norg + TAN). Note that the N2O, NOX and N2 emissions from the various storage systems include the respective emissions from the related housing systems.
Actually, for poultry the excretion of uric acid nitrogen (UAN) should be used instead of TAN (see Dämmgen and Erisman (2005) [5]). Since it is impossible to model the influence of humidity on hydrolyses of UAN, the inventory assumes in line with EMEP (2013) that UAN excreted is considered TAN.

Air scrubber systems in swine husbandry

The inventory considers the effect of air scrubbing facilities in pig production. Based on KTBL data, 80 % of the NH3 emissions during housing are removed if animal places are equipped with air scrubbers. For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 the dust removal rates are set to 90 % and 70 %, respectively. In 2013 4.2 % of all pig places were equipped with air scrubbers.
The amounts of NH3-N removed by air scrubbing are completely added to the pools of total N and TAN before landspreading. For details see Rösemann et al., 2015, [1]).

Anaerobic digestion of manure

Anaerobic digestion of manure is treated like a particular storage type that, however, comprises three sub-compartments (prestorage, fermenter and storage of digestates). The resulting digestates are liquid. Two different types of storage are considered, i. e. gastight storage and open tank. For the open tank it is taken into account that there is a natural crust because of the usual co-fermentation of energy plants. As the amount of TAN in the digestates is higher than in untreated slurry and the frequencies of spreading techniques differ from those for untreated slurry, spreading of digestates and resulting emissions are calculated separately from spreading of slurry.
NH3 and NO emissions occur from prestorage of solid manure, from non-gastight storage of digestates and from landspreading of digestates. Note that NH3 and NO emissions calculated with respect to the digestion of animal manures do not comprise the contributions by co-digested energy plants. The latter are calculated separately and are not reported because emissions from energy plants are not to be reported within the framework of UNECE. There are no emissions of NH3 and NO from prestorage of slurry, from the fermenter and from gastight storage of digestates.
For details see Rösemann et. al. (2015) [1]),)).

Emission Factors

Application of the N mass flow approach requires detailed emission factors for NH3, N2O, NOX and N2 describing the emissions from the various housing and storage systems as well as the various manure application techniques.
In general, the detailed NH3, emission factors are related to the amount of TAN available at the various stages of the N flow chain. These NH3, emission factors are mainly country specific but are also taken from EMEP (2013) [10]. No specific NH3 emission factors are known for the application of digested manure. However the viscosity of digested manure ressembles that of untreated cattle slurry (due to co-fermentation of energy plants). Hence, the emission factors for untreated cattle slurry were adopted (Rösemann et al., 2015)[1].
The detailed emission factors for N2O, NOX and N2 relate to the amount of N available which is N excreted plus (in case of solid manure systems) N input with bedding material. The N2O, emission factors are taken from IPCC (2006) [4], ], except for the emission factor for solid manure systems which is country specific. The emission factors for NOX and N2 are approximated as proportional to the N2O emission factors. This proportionality is also applied to anaerobic digestion of manure, where N2O emissions occur from prestorage of solid manure and non-gastight storage of digestates with natural crust, the emission factors being those used for normal storage of solid manure and the storage of untreated slurry with natural crust provided by IPCC (2006). Note that the inventory model calculates NO rather than NOX. The NO emissions are then converted to NOX emissions by multiplying with 46/30 which means a transformation into NO2. Equivalently, this conversion can also be applied to the emission factors as is shown in Table 3.
For a detailed description of the emission factors see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1].

Another type of emission factor is the implied emission factor (IEF). It describes the total of emissions obtained from the N mass flow approach and is defined as the ratio of the total emission from an animal category to the respective number of animals. Table 3 shows the implied emission factors of NH3 and NOX for the various animal categories

Table 3: IEF for NH3 & NOx
Implied emission factors for NH3 & NOx
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
animal NH3 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 30.6 33.0 35.1 36.8 37.0 37.2 36.4 36.2
other cattle 16.1 15.7 15.7 15.8 15.3 15.3 15.0 15.0
horses 24.6 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
sheep 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
goats 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
swine 5.73 5.50 5.47 5.38 5.28 5.27 5.23 5.23
laying hens 0.462 0.444 0.417 0.450 0.433 0.435 0.434 0.435
broilers 0.217 0.198 0.212 0.216 0.244 0.231 0.209 0.193
turkeys 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.26 1.21 1.22 1.30 1.30
pullets 0.200 0.180 0.164 0.177 0.163 0.162 0.161 0.161
ducks 0.301 0.301 0.301 0.300 0.299 0.298 0.297 0.297
geese 0.377 0.377 0.377 0.376 0.375 0.375 0.374 0.374
animal NOx converted in kg NO2/animal place
dairy cattle 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
other cattle 0.0788 0.0823 0.0843 0.0864 0.0883 0.0874 0.0859 0.0858
horses 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
sheep 0.0159 0.0158 0.0161 0.0160 0.0161 0.0160 0.0160 0.0160
goats 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329 0.0329
swine 0.0145 0.0149 0.0147 0.0164 0.0177 0.0174 0.0170 0.0170
laying hens 0.00027 0.00026 0.00025 0.00029 0.00033 0.00034 0.00032 0.00032
broilers 0.00016 0.00015 0.00016 0.00019 0.00023 0.00022 0.00019 0.00017
turkeys 0.00067 0.00067 0.00069 0.00081 0.00084 0.00084 0.00085 0.00085
pullets 0.00013 0.00012 0.00011 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013 0.00012 0.00012
ducks 0.00024 0.00024 0.00024 0.00025 0.00026 0.00026 0.00025 0.00025
geese 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00019 0.00020 0.00020 0.00019 0.00019

NMVOC

Reporting of NMVOC emissions has been resumed for the submission at hand based on the new methodology provided by EMEP (2013). In 2013, NMVOC emissions from manure management amount to 95.1 % of total NMVOC emissions from the agricultural sector. Within the emissions from manure management 76.4 % originate from cattle, 7.7 % from pigs, and 14.2 % from poultry.

Method

The Tier 1 methodology provided by EMEP (2013)-3B-15[10]) was used to assess the emissions of NMVOC from manure management.

Activity data

Animal numbers serve as activity data, see Table 1.

Emission factors

Tier 1 emission factors for NMVOC are provided in EMEP (2013)-3B-16, Table 3-3[10]). For cattle, sheep, goats and horses there are different emission factors for feeding with and without silage. Only for cattle and horses the emission factors with silage feeding were chosen. The implied emission factors given in Table 4 relate the overall NMVOC emissions to the number of animals in each animal category. They correspond to the EMEP Tier 1 emission factors, except for horses. The category of horses comprises heavy horses and light horses/ponies/, mules, and asses in annually varying population shares. Hence the overall IEF of horses in Table 4 represents a mean value.

Table 4: IEF for NMVOC
Implied emission factors for NMVOC
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
animal NMVOC in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 17.937 17.937 17.937 17.937 17.937 17.937 17.937 17.937
other cattle 8.902 8.902 8.902 8.902 8.902 8.902 8.902 8.902
horses 6.497 6.491 6.688 6.660 6.644 6.643 6.642 6.641
sheep 0.131 0.131 0.132 0.132 0.131 0.131 0.131 0.131
goats 0.542 0.542 0.542 0.542 0.542 0.542 0.542 0.542
swine 0.695 0.698 0.690 0.682 0.669 0.663 0.656 0.654
laying hens 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165
broilers 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108
turkeys 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489
pullets 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.108
ducks 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489
geese 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489 0.489

TSP, PM2,5 & PM10

In 2013, TSP emissions from manure management amount to 72.4 % of total emissions from the agricultural sector. Within the emissions from manure management 22.3 % originate from cattle, 33.3 % from pigs, and 43.8 % from poultry.
In 2013, 64.4 % of the PM10 emissions from the agricultural sector are caused by manure management, where 14.8 % originate from cattle, 21.4 % from pigs, and 63.4 % from poultry.
In 2013, PM2.5 emissions from the agricultural sector mostly originate from from manure management (91.7 %), of which are 41.5 % from cattle, 17.6 % from pigs, and 40.2 % from poultry.

Method

EMEP (2013)-3B-26 [10]) provides a Tier 2 methodology to assess the emissions of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 from animal housing. This method was adopted. In addition, air scrubber systems in swine husbandry are considered. However, EMEP(2013)-3B-33 [10]) states that the emission factors are a first estimate only, thus the calculations in this inventory provide only a first estimate of particulate matter from animal husbandry.

Activity data

Please see table 1 top of page.

Emission factors

Tier 2 emission factors for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 from animal housing are provided in EMEP (2013)-3B-29, Table 3-11 and 53, Table A3-4 [10]). For cattle and swine these emission factors differentiate between slurry and solid manure systems, for laying hens they differentiate between cages and perchery.
The implied emission factors given in Table 5 relate the overall TSP and PM emissions to the number of animals in each animal category.

Table 5: IEF for PM2,5 & PM10
Implied emission factors for PM2,5 & PM10
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
animal TSP in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 1.2479 1.4335 1.4537 1.4738 1.4891 1.4873 1.4860 1.4841
other cattle 0.5195 0.5107 0.5018 0.4925 0.4823 0.4814 0.4817 0.4822
horses 0.3514 0.3512 0.3558 0.3552 0.3548 0.3548 0.3548 0.3547
sheep 0.0484 0.0478 0.0489 0.0486 0.0489 0.0485 0.0485 0.0485
goats 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914 0.0914
swine 0.7296 0.7289 0.7177 0.7066 0.6802 0.6702 0.6647 0.6631
laying hens 0.0303 0.0305 0.0374 0.0508 0.1021 0.1059 0.1064 0.1085
broilers 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690
turkeys 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200
pullets 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690
ducks 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400
geese 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400
animal PM10 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 0.5719 0.6572 0.6664 0.6757 0.6827 0.6819 0.6813 0.6804
other cattle 0.2404 0.2363 0.2321 0.2277 0.2230 0.2226 0.2227 0.2229
horses 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368
sheep 0.3248 0.3243 0.3192 0.3142 0.3023 0.2979 0.2953 0.2946
goats 0.0303 0.0305 0.0374 0.0508 0.1021 0.1059 0.1064 0.1085
swine 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690
laying hens 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200 0.5200
broilers 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690 0.0690
turkeys 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400 0.1400
pullets 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400 0.2400
ducks 0.5719 0.6572 0.6664 0.6757 0.6827 0.6819 0.6813 0.6804
geese 0.2404 0.2363 0.2321 0.2277 0.2230 0.2226 0.2227 0.2229
PM2.5 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 0.3722 0.4276 0.4336 0.4396 0.4442 0.4437 0.4433 0.4427
other cattle 0.1575 0.1548 0.1521 0.1493 0.1463 0.1460 0.1461 0.1462
horses 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112 0.0112
sheep 0.0612 0.0612 0.0604 0.0595 0.0577 0.0570 0.0566 0.0565
goats 0.0041 0.0042 0.0056 0.0085 0.0193 0.0201 0.0202 0.0207
swine 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091
laying hens 0.0098 0.0111 0.0126 0.0145 0.0175 0.0174 0.0171 0.0170
broilers 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091 0.0091
turkeys 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180 0.0180
pullets 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320 0.0320
ducks 0.3722 0.4276 0.4336 0.4396 0.4442 0.4437 0.4433 0.4427
geese 0.1575 0.1548 0.1521 0.1493 0.1463 0.1460 0.1461 0.1462
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