3.D - Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
3.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
3.D.a.1 Inorganic N-fertilizers (includes also urea application) T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS D (NH3), D (NOx) NOx (L/T), NH3 (L/T)
3.D.a.2.a Animal manure applied to soils T3 (for NOx) M D NOx (L), NH3 (L)
3.D.a.3 Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals T3 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) RS D -
3.D.c Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T1 (for TSP, PM10, PM2.5,) TSP (L), PM10 (L/T)
3.D.e Cultivated crops T2 (NMVOC) RS, NS D -

Country specifics

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NH3 and NOx

In 2013 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 154.6 Gg NH3 or 24.4 % to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (633.3 Gg NH3). of inorganic N-fertilizers (3.Da1), contributing 94.6 % of of soil-related NH3 emissions (~ 146.3 Gg). N excretions on pastures (3.Da3) has a share of 5.4 % (~8.3 Gg). NH3 emissions from the application of manure (3.Da2a) are included in sector 3.B.
Agricultural soils make up 98.1 % (106.8 Gg) of the total of NOX emissions in the agricultural sector (108.8 Gg). The NOX emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of mineral fertilizer (60.9 %) and manure (36.2 %) while excretions on pastures are of minor importance (2.9 %).

NMVOC

In 2013 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 10.3 Gg NMVOC or 4.9 % to the total agricultural NMVOC emissions in Germany. The only source is emissions from cultivated crops (3.De).

TSP, PM10 & PM2,5

In 2013, agricultural soils contribute 27.6 % (17.8 Gg), 35.6 % (17.8 Gg) and 8.3 % (ca. 0.7 Gg) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10,and PM2.5 emissions (TSP: 64.4 Gg, PM10: 50.0 Gg PM2.5: 8.2 Gg), respectively. The emissions are reported in category 3.De.

3.D.a.1 - Inorganic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.
The amount of N fertilizer applied in the year 2013 is 1,649 Gg N.

Table 1: Amount of N applied with mineral fertilizers
Activity data in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
Application of fertilizer (total) 2,163.6 1,787.3 2,013.6 1,778.4 1,.569.0 1,786.5 1,640.4 1,648.8
calcium ammonium nitrate 1,348.4 1,090.6 1,057.3 831.9 712.9 728.4 681.8 631.0
nitrogen solutions (urea AN) 117.2 225.9 273.4 237.9 187.5 199.7 172.5 171.3
urea 246.6 190.7 231.5 261.6 280.0 377.3 311.3 356.6
ammonium phosphates 97.2 57.0 75.7 58.1 62.5 76.5 73.4 81.9
other NK and NPK 238.7 162.0 169.9 132.5 50.5 79.1 69.0 71.3
other straight fertilizers 115.5 61.1 205.9 256.5 275.7 325.4 332.3 336.7

Methodology

NH3 emissions are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP(2013)-3D-12ff [10]. For NH3 emissions, various fertilizer types are distinguished. For details see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1].
For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP(2013) [10]-3D-10ff is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type and mean spring temperature, see EMEP(2013)-3D-14[10]. Table 2 lists The emission calculations were made with region specific spring temperatures. As the mean spring temperature in Germany is around 9°C, Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for the fertilizers used in the inventory.

Table 2: NH3-EF for mineral fertilizers
Mineral fertilizers, emission factors in NH3 per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.022
nitrogen solutions (UREA AN) 0.125
urea 0.243
ammonium phosphates 0.113
other NK and NPK 0.037
other straight fertilizers 0.037

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP(2013)-3D-10ff [10] was used. The emission factor for NOx-N is obtained by multiplying the EMEP emission factor of 0.026 NO per kg fertilizer N (EMEP, 2013-3D, Table 3-1) with the atomic weight ratio 14/30. The emission factor for NOx as NO2 is obtained by multiplying the NO emission factor with the atomic weight ratio 46/30.

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application
Emission factor kg NOx-N per kg fertilizer N kg NOx per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.040

3.D.a.2.a - Animal manure applied to soils

In this sector Germany reports the NOx emissions from application of manure. Note that NH3 emissions from application of manure are included under 3.B.

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 3.B). It is the total of N excreted by animals in the housing and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of NOx emissions from application of manure
Application of manure in Gg/a
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
1,151.6 1,002.3 972.7 943.5 945.1 952.7 968.5 980.6

Methodology

The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with 46/30. The Tier 1 approach for the application of mineral fertilizer as described in EMEP(2013)-3D-10ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

As the method for fertilizer application is used, the emission factor for fertilizer application (see Table 3) was adopted.

3.D.a.3 - Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals

The calculation of NH3 and NOx emission resulting from animal excreta deposited during grazing is described in the following. For details see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1].

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture (see 3.B) while for NOx emissions it is the amount of N excreted on pasture. For details see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1]).

Table 5: AD N excretion
N excretion on pasture in % of total N excreted
Dairy cows 18.2 13.8 13.0 11.5 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7
Other cattle 15.0 17.0 18.4 18.5 18.9 18.9 18.8 18.7
Sheep 55.1 55.5 55.1 55.4 54.8 55.1 55.1 55.2
Goats 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2
Horses 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5

Method

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with corresponding N excretions and relative TAN contents (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 5). The result is multiplied with the animal specific emission factor (Table 6). NO emissions are calculated by multiplying the emission factor (Table 6) with the amount of total N excreted on pasture that is obtained by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with Nexcreted (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 5).

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP(2013)-3B-27 [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. The emission factor for NOx is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9]. It relates to the amount of total N excreted on pasture. In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NOx-N emission factor is to be multiplied by 46/14.

Table 6: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NOX from grazing
Emission factors
EFN, NH3 Dairy cows 0.10 kg kg-1 NH3-N (related to TAN)
EFN, NH3 Other cattle 0.06 kg kg-1 NH3-N (related to TAN)
EFN, NH3 Horses 0.35 kg kg-1 NH3-N (related to TAN)
EFN, NH3 Sheep, goats 0.09 kg kg-1 NH3-N (related to TAN)
EFN, NOx all animals 0.007 kg kg-1 NO-N (related to total N)

3.D.e - Cultivated crops

In this sector Germany reports NMVOC emissions from crop production as well as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from agricultural soils according to EMEP (2013).

NMVOC emissions from crop production

The calculation of NMVOC emissions from crop production is described in the following. For details see Rösemann et al. (2015) [1].

Activity data

The activity data are the areas of arable land and grassland. These data is provided by official statistics.

Table 7: AD for the estimation of NMVOC emissions from crop production
Arable land and grassland in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
16,506 15,312 15,498 15,562 15,669 15,684 15,670 15,701

Methodology

In EMEP (2013)-3D-32ff the methodology is described how the EMEP Tier 1 EF was estimated. This methodology was adopted to estimate German emissions. It is considered a Tier 2 methodology.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for wheat, rye, rape and grass (15°C) given in EMEP (2013)-3D-34, Table A3-2 were used. For all grassland areas the grass (15°C) EF is used, for all other crops except rye and rape the wheat EF is used. Table 8 shows the implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from crop production. The implied emission factor is defined as ratio of the total NMVOC emissions to the total area of crop production.

Table 8: Implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from crop production
IEF for NMVOC emissions form crop production in kg NMVOC / ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
0.47 0.54 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.57 0.64 0.66

3.D.c - Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

Activity data

The activity data are the areas of arable and horticultural land. These data is provided by official statistics.

Table 9: AD for the estimation of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from soils
Arable and horticultural land in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013
11,174 10,250 10,674 10,889 11,333 11,350 11,345 11,393

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP(2013)-3D-13 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2013)-3D-10 f [10] is used. The approach only allows for a first estimate of the order of magnitude to be expected for these emissions.

Emission factors

Emission factors given in EMEP(2013)-3D-11 [10] are used. As no emission factor is available for TSP, TSP is assumed to equal the emission of PM10.

Table 10: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils
Emission factor kg ha-1 a-1
EFTSP 1.56
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06
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