1.A.3.b vii - Road Transport: Automobile Road Abrasion

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b vii - Road Transport: Automobile Road Abrasion emissions from road abrasion in Road Transport are reported. Therefore, this sub-category is an important source for a) particle emissions and b) emissions of heavy metals, POPs etc. included in these particles.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b vii Automobile road abrasion T1, T3 NS, M CS PM10 (L), PM2.5 (L), TSP (L)


Activity Data

For detailed mileage data, please see superordinate chapter.

Emission factors

The tier1 emission factors used here have been derived within a literature study in 2006. During this study, average amounts of particulate abrasion per km and average contents especially of heavy metals in road surface were derived.

\begin{gather} EM(PM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] = ØEM(PM)_\text{ per km, type of vehicle} [kg/km] \cdot Mileage_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [km] \end{gather}
\begin{gather} EM(HM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] = EM(PM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} [kg] \cdot ØContent(HM)_\text{ road surface} [kg/kg] \end{gather}

EF used for emission estimates 1990(1995)-2013

Table 1: Overview of tier1 EF used for emissions from road abrasion
Material Road Abrasion
Vehicle type PCs LDVs HDVs Buses 2Ws
Particulate Matter [mg/km]
PM2.5 4.050 4.050 20.520 20.520 1.620
PM10 7.500 7.500 38.000 34.200 3.000
TSP 15.000 15.000 76.000 76.000 6.000
Heavy Metals [µg/km]
Priority HM
Pb 0.062 0.062 0.312 0.062 0.025
Hg 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cd 0.003 0.003 0.016 0.003 0.001
Other HM
As 0.039 0.039 0.198 0.039 0.016
Cr 1.080 1.080 5.472 1.080 0.432
Cu 0.037 0.037 0.186 0.037 0.015
Ni 0.570 0.570 2.888 0.570 0.228
Se 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Zn 1.290 1.290 6.536 1.290 0.516

Discussion of emission trends

NOTE: Due to a manual error during data compilation, the emission estimates for PM2.5 and PM10 (for heavy duty vehicles) provided in the NFR tables are incorrect for 1990 to 1994. As The emission charts provided above therefore include artificial corrections in order to display the correct trend in emissions. - The described error will be corrected with the 2016 NEC and CLRTAP submissions.

NFR 1.A.3.b vii - Emissions from road abrasion is key category for emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP regarding these emissions' level.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5, PM10 & TSP

(from wear/abrasion only; no fuel combustion included)

Emissions from road abrasion are directly linked to driven mileage. Thus, the overall trend of emissions from road abrasion is similar to the trend for total driven mileage.

Selected heavy metals - Chromium, Nickel and Zinc

In the same way, the changes within the emissions from passenger cars, heavy and light duty vehicles, buses or mopeds & motorcycles correlate with those for the mileages driven by these types of road vehicles.


Recalculations were carried out due to a regular the revision of the mileage data modelled in TREMOD. (see superordinate chapter for recalculated mileage data).

Due to the broad changes in the NFR structure, no sector- and pollutant-specific information on the impacts on emission estimates are provided in chapter 8.1 - Recalculations with this submission.


Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

As mentioned above, the erroneous data for 1990 to 1994 will be corrected. Besides, the tier1 EF will be compared to the values available from the EMEP/EEA GB 2013.


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