1.A.4.a ii - Commercial / Institutional: Mobile

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:20 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.a ii fuel combustion activities and emissions from commercially and institutionally used mobile sources should be reported.
Within the German inventory, the only mobile machinery considered here are diesel non-road machinery and LPG-driven forklifters.

NOTE: Until submission 2014, all NFR 1.A.4.a ii emissions were reported as 'IE' in 1.A.4. With the present submissions, these emissions are reported separately for the first time here.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.4.a.ii Commercial/Institutional: Mobile combustion T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M no key category


Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2014) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of diesel oil inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2014) [2], the remaining amounts of diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2014b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.a ii to NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers'
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 6.96% 6.58% 6.72% 6.78% 6.90% 6.93% 7.09% 7.22% 7.01% 7.11% 6.99% 7.04% 7.04% 6.75% 6.73% 6.71%

As the NEB does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for biodiesel are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of biodiesel blended to fossil diesel oil.

In contrast, for LPG-driven forklifters, specific consumption data is modelled in TREMOD-MM. (Here, these amounts are subtracted from the over-all amount available from NEB line 67 to estimate the share of LPG used in NFR 1.A.4.a i - Commercial/Institutional: Stationary combustion.)

Table: Annual fuel consumption, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Diesel Oil 7,787 6,432 6,385 6,201 6,204 6,142 6,087 5,914 5,802 5,911 5,912 6,309 6,235 6,128 5,993 6,129
Biodiesel NE NE NE NE NE NE 52 129 169 264 292 435 407 404 393 357
LPG 4,188 5,168 6,306 6,511 6,705 6,891 7,070 7,242 7,409 7,571 7,730 7,885 8,037 8,052 8,064 8,074
TOTAL 11,974 11,601 12,690 12,712 12,909 13,033 13,210 13,286 13,380 13,747 13,934 14,628 14,679 14,583 14,450 14,559

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], [5].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2013 emission estimates1
Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq mg/TJ
Diesel 0.172 72.52 5262 0.373 3682 51.62 51.64 51.64 1.215 0.237 0.125 0.0025 1.167 39.67 1.637 0.237 23.37 6987 1,1647 8006 1846 2,8478 1.629 NE NE
LPG 0.142 1502 1,3442 0.413 1142 NE NE NE NE 0.235 NE NE 0.205 0.815 0.235 NE 46.35 4.356 0.006 4.356 4.356 13.07 NE NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from (ifeu, 2014b) [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles, p. 104, Table 3-103 [4]
6 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles, p. 22, Tables 3-8 & 3-9 [4]
7 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013, chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road [5]
8 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
9 tier1 values derived from [6]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.a ii is no key source.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.


As fuel consumption activities and resulting emissions fromm NFR 1.A.4.a ii are reported separately for the first time, no recalculations can be described here.
Instead, activity data applied to the other NFRs included in NEB line 67 changed widely, resulting in recalculated emissions.


Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.


Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [5] and [6] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.

1. AGEB, 2014: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2014: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 20.11.2014), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2014b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2014.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-road-transport
5. EMEP/EEA, 2013b: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013; Chapter Non-road mobile sources and machinery; URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-4-non-road-mobile-sources
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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