2.A.1 Cement Production

Last updated on 16 Oct 2015 06:19 (cf. Authors)

2.A.1 - Cement Production

Short description
The remarks below refer to production of cement clinkers and clinker grinding (only relevant as a source for particulate matter). The clinker-burning with intensive use of energy emits climate-relevant gases. CO2 accounts for the great majority of these emissions. But heavy metals are important too. Information about key source relevance you find within the overview '2.A'.


Activity data
Activity data are determined via summation of figures for individual plants (until 1994, activity data were determined on the basis of data of the BDZ). As of 1995, following optimisation of data collection within the association, activity data were compiled by the German Cement Works Association (VDZ), and by its cement-industry research institute (located in Düsseldorf), via surveys of German cement works and use of BDZ figures. The data mainly consists of data published in the framework of CO2 monitoring, and supplemented with data for plants that are not BDZ members (in part, also VDZ estimates). Most companies are also required to report production data within the framework of CO2-emissions trading. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5 %.

Emission factors
The emission factors used for emissions calculation are based on figures for individual plants and from research projects as well as from expert judgements.

In the German cement industry, dust separated from clinker burning exhaust gas is returned to the burning process. As a result, there is no need to take account of significant losses of particles via the exhaust-gas pathway. - On the other hand, particultae matter emissions occur during clinker grinding.

pollutant Name of Category EF unit Trend
NOx clinker burning 0.70 kg/t falling
SO2 clinker burning 0.27 kg/t falling
NMVOC clinker burning 0.046 kg/t constant
NH3 clinker burning 0.067 kg/t constant
Hg clinker burning 0.026 g/t falling
Pb clinker burning 0.019 g/t falling
Cd clinker burning 0.005 g/t falling
PCB clinker burning 28.0 µg/t constant
PCDD clinker burning 0.040 µg/t constant
B(a)P clinker burning 1.0 mg/t constant
PAH clinker burning 240 mg/t constant
TSP clinker grinding 0.053 kg/t falling
PM10 clinker grinding 0.048 kg/t falling
PM2.5 clinker grinding 0.046 kg/t falling

Emissions of HCB are not applicable according to a research result.

Trends in emissions

All trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors in table above. No rising trends are to identify.


Recalculation activities were done for time series consistency regarding the fuel related emissions. As a result between 1990-1994 emissions of NOx, SO2, NMVOC and NH3 have been both increased and decreased.

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